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HF/VHF/UHF All Mode TrAnsceiVer
FT-991
operATing MAnUAl
YAESU MUSEN CO., LTD.
Tennozu Parkside Building
2-5-8 Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002 Japan
YAESU USA
6125 Phyllis Drive, Cypress, CA 90630, U.S.A.
YAESU UK
Unit 12, Sun Valley Business Park, Winnall Close
Winchester, Hampshire, SO23 0LB, U.K.
1

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  • Page 1

    HF/VHF/UHF All Mode Transceiver

    FT-991
    Operating Manual

    YAESU MUSEN CO., LTD.

    Tennozu Parkside Building
    2-5-8 Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002 Japan

    YAESU USA

    6125 Phyllis Drive, Cypress, CA 90630, U.S.A.

    YAESU UK

    Unit 12, Sun Valley Business Park, Winnall Close
    Winchester, Hampshire, SO23 0LB, U.K.



  • Page 2

    About This Manual . . .
    The FT-991 is a leading-edge transceiver with a number of new and exciting features, some of which may be unfamiliar
    to you. In order to gain the most enjoyment and operating efficiency from your FT-991, we recommend that you read
    this manual in its entirety, and keep it handy for reference as you explore the many capabilities of your new transceiver.
    Before using your FT-991, be sure to read and follow the instructions in the “Before You Begin” section of this manual.

    About TFT Displays
    FT-991 utilizes a TFT liquid-crystal display.
    • Although TFT liquid-crystal displays are made using very precise technology, they are prone to develop
    dead pixels (dark dot) or pixels that are always on (bright dot). Please understand that such phenomena
    do not constitute product defects or malfunctions. Rather, this phenomena occurs due to limitations in the
    manufacturing technology with respect to TFT liquid-crystal displays.
    • Depending on the viewing angle, unevenness in color or brightness may occur. Please note that any unevenness observed is inherent to the construction of TFT liquid crystal displays and therefore does not constitute
    a product defect or malfunction.
    • If your TFT liquid-crystal display becomes dirty, please use a dry soft cloth or tissue to wipe the display
    clean. Use of glass cleaner, household cleaners, organic solvents, alcohol, abrasives, and/or like substance
    may damage the TFT liquid-crystal display.



  • Page 3

    General Description
    Built-in high-brightness TFT full-color
    display with touch-panel functionality

    The FT-991 is equipped with a 3.5 inch full-color TFT
    display. Functions, including the receiving band, the noise
    and signal interference reduction tools are graphically
    displayed. Even while performing rigorous operations,
    during DX pditions or contests, the operator may instantly
    grasp the status of each function.

    Equipped with C4FM digital mode

    This transceiver C4FM mode provides good error correction performance, and supports the V/D mode (voice/
    data simultaneous transmission mode) which makes the
    transceiver suitable for mobile communication, and the
    Voice FR mode (voice full rate mode) which allows the
    transceiver to transmit high quality digital audio. The AMS
    function recognizes the contacting stations transmission
    method and automatically switches the transceiver to the
    same C4FM digital or analog (FM) communications mode
    as the received signal.

    GM (Group Monitor) function allows
    registering frequently communicating
    stations to a memory group. The group
    members may then automatically
    exchange (send/receive) station location
    information.

    The transceiver automatically checks the channel frequency for registered member stations that are within communicating range. The distance and direction information
    of the call sign members of the group may be shown on
    the TFT display.

    Comes equipped with two types of
    roofing filters

    This transceiver is equipped with two types of roofing
    filters for 3kHz and 15kHz bandwidths. These narrow band
    filters are especially useful on a very crowded band during
    contests, because they can dramatically attenuate powerful
    out-of-band signals in the first IF stage and reduce their
    impact in the second stage to further optimizing the excellent dynamic range and IP3 characteristics for processing
    signals ranging from faint to powerful.

    Two selectable RF amplifiers provide the
    optimal receiver gain for each low-to high
    HF band (see page 46.)

    Configure the front end RF circuitry for the precise gain and
    performance to suit the conditions of each HF band.Select
    the IPO (Intercept Point Optimization) feature to optimize
    the proximal multi-signal and mutual modulation characteristics in order to minimize the effects of powerful broadcast
    stations, especially in the low-band so that even the faintest
    signals can be received. When higher gain is advantageous,
    select the single low noise RF amplifier AMP1. In the high
    bands, adding AMP2 provides maximum useful gain.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    High stability built-in TCXO

    The 30.225 MHz standard oscillator provides exceptional
    frequency stability. It is temperature compensated and
    boasts an enhanced ±0.5 ppm stability from −10°C to
    +50°C.

    WIDTH feature and continuously variable
    bandwidth SHIFT feature. Optimal wide to
    narrow bandwidth switching (see pages
    49, 50.)

    The SHIFT feature, can eliminate interference in one side
    of the passband. The WIDTH feature allows the bandwidth
    to be narrowed by rotating the WIDTH knob. The moment
    weak signals disappear due to interfering signals (including pile-ups), you can eliminate the interfering signals and
    extract only the desired signal, thanks to the unique DSP
    sharp filtering characteristic.

    CONTOUR feature is renowned for
    effective noise control (see page 48.)
    Rather than using the DSP extremely sharp attenuation
    characteristics, the CONTOUR circuit provides gentle
    shaping of the DSP passband filter and can thus attenuate
    or peak bandwidth components in segments. The interfering signal can be naturally shaped without having part of
    the signal suddenly interrupted. The contour function is
    very effective in making the desired signal rise out of the
    interference.

    DNR (Digital Noise Reduction) by DSP
    digital processing (see page 54.)
    The incorporated digital noise reduction circuit may be
    set to the optimal working point by varying the 15 step
    parameters according to the noise type.

    NOTCH feature that significantly
    eliminates unwanted beat signals; and
    DNF feature that instantly attenuates
    multiple beat signals (see page 54.)
    When interfering beat signals are present in the receiver
    passband, the IF NOTCH feature can significantly eliminate a part of the passband and remove the beat signal.
    Moreover, the function is equipped with an Automatic
    Tracking System DNF (Digital Notch Filter) that can
    be engaged by DSP when there are multiple interfering
    signals, even when the frequency is changing.

    Reliable High-output Final Amplifier
    Stage

    In the HF/50MHz frequency range, a pair of RD100HHF1
    transistors in a push-pull RF amplifier arrangement delivers 100 watts of low-distortion, high-quality transmitter
    power. The final amplifier for the 144 MHz/430 MHz
    bands uses the high-output RDH70HUF2 device, providing ample output power of 50 watts.

    Page 1



  • Page 4

    General Description
    Microphone Amplifier that includes
    Parametric Equalizer (see page 63.)

    The microphone amplifier equalizer feature is equipped
    with a three-stage parametric equalizer that can alter the
    Low, Mid, and High frequencies of the audio separately;
    this feature permits the bandwidth and gain for each part of
    the audio spectrum to be precisely adjusted independently.

    High Speed Spectrum Scope (see page
    40.)

    The spectrum scope function provides a visual display of
    the intensity and distribution of signals across the band .
    When using the ASC (Automatic Spectrum-Scope Control) mode, the scope spectrum is automatically swept in
    response to the movement of the main tuning dial; the
    scanned spectrum signal distribution can be observed in
    real-time.

    High speed antenna tuner (see page
    61.)

    The transceiver is equipped with the relay switching high
    speed digital tuner which supports 1.8 MHz to 50 MHz.
    The large 100-channel tuning data memory allows immediate recall of the optimum matching conditions for
    previously tuned frequencies.

    Optional Five Channel Message Memory
    (voice memory) (see page 68.)

    You can use the 5 channel voice memory function which
    is useful for operating in contests, etc. This voice memory
    enables recording of up to 20 seconds of audio for each
    message you want to send.

    Custom selection (C.S) button (see page
    37.)

    This feature lets you select any Menu item for one-touch
    access via the C.S button.

    Page 2

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 5

    Table of Contents
    General Description...................................................... 1
    Table of Contents.......................................................... 3
    Accessories & Options.................................................. 5
    Supplied Accessories................................................. 5
    Available Options...................................................... 6
    Before You Begin........................................................... 7
    Base Station Wire Stand............................................ 7
    Adjusting the Main Tuning Dial Torque................... 7
    Adjusting the Clock................................................... 8
    Inputting the Call Sign.............................................. 9
    Resetting the Microprocessor.................................. 10
    Antenna Considerations.......................................... 11
    About Coaxial Cable............................................... 11
    Grounding................................................................ 12
    Connection of Antenna and Power Cables.............. 13
    Installation and Interconnections.............................. 14
    Connection of Microphone, Headphone and
    Remote Control Keypad.......................................... 14
    Key, Keyer, and Computer-Driven Keying
    Interconnections...................................................... 15
    VL-1000 Linear Amplifier Interconnections........... 16
    Plug/Connector Pinout Diagrams............................ 17
    Front Panel Controls & Switches.............................. 18
    About the Display........................................................ 22
    TFT Liquid Crystal Display.................................... 22
    LED Indicators........................................................ 24
    Rear Panel.................................................................... 25
    MH-31A8J Microphone Switches.............................. 27
    Optional FH-2 Remote Control Switches................. 28
    Optional MH-36E8J Microphone Switches.............. 29
    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands....... 30
    Operation on 60-Meter (5 MHz) Band
    (U.S. and U.K. version only)................................... 33
    CLAR (Clarifier) Operation.................................... 34
    LOCK...................................................................... 35
    DIMMER................................................................ 35
    VFO COLOR.......................................................... 36
    Convenience Features................................................. 37
    Band Stack Operation.............................................. 37
    C.S (Custom Switch)............................................... 37
    AMS (Automatic Mode Select) Operation.............. 38
    SCOPE.................................................................... 40
    More Frequency Navigation Techniques................ 42
    Receiver Operation (Front End Block Diagram).... 44

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Interference Rejection................................................ 45
    ATT (Attenuator)..................................................... 45
    IPO (Intercept Point Optimization)......................... 46
    IF Noise Blanker (NB) Operation........................... 47
    CONTOUR Control Operation............................... 48
    IF SHIFT Operation
    (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA Modes)............................. 49
    WIDTH (IF DSP Bandwidth) Tuning
    (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA Modes)............................. 50
    NARROW (NAR) One-Touch IF Filter
    Selection.................................................................. 52
    IF NOTCH Filter Operation
    (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA/AM Modes)..................... 53
    Digital NOTCH Filter (DNF) Operation................. 54
    Digital Noise Reduction (DNR) Operation............. 54
    Tools for Comfortable and Effective Reception....... 55
    RF Gain................................................................... 55
    Audio Peak Filter.................................................... 56
    AGC (Automatic Gain Control).............................. 57
    Adjustable Receiver Audio Filter............................ 58
    SSB/AM Mode Transmission..................................... 59
    Using the Automatic Antenna Tuner......................... 61
    ATU Operation........................................................ 61
    About ATU Operation............................................. 62
    Enhancing Transmit Signal Quality.......................... 63
    Parametric Microphone Equalizer
    (SSB/AM mode)...................................................... 63
    Using the Speech Processor (SSB Mode)............... 66
    Adjusting the SSB Transmitted Bandwidth
    (SSB Mode)............................................................. 67
    Transmitter Convenience Features........................... 68
    Voice Memory (SSB/AM modes)........................... 68
    VOX (SSB/AM/FM Modes: Automatic TX/RX
    Switching using Voice Control).............................. 70
    MONITOR (SSB/AM modes)................................ 72
    Split Operation Using the TX Clarifier................... 73
    Split-Frequency Operation...................................... 74
    CW Mode Operation.................................................. 76
    Setup for Straight Key
    (and Straight Key emulation) Operation................. 76
    Using the Built-in Electronic Keyer........................ 78
    CW Convenience Features......................................... 82
    CW Spotting (Zero-Beating)................................... 82
    CW Delay Time Setting.......................................... 83
    CW Pitch Adjustment.............................................. 83
    Contest Memory Keyer........................................... 84
    FM Mode Operation................................................... 91
    Basic Operation....................................................... 91
    Repeater Operation.................................................. 92
    Tone Squelch Operation.......................................... 94
    DCS Operation........................................................ 94
    C4FM Mode (Digital Mode) Operation.................... 95
    Memory Operation..................................................... 97
    Convenient Memory functions................................ 97
    QMB (Quick Memory Bank).................................. 97
    Standard Memory Operation................................... 98
    Memory Groups.................................................... 104

    Page 3



  • Page 6

    Table of Contents
    Operation on Alaska Emergency Frequency:
    5167.5 khz (U.S. Version Only)................................ 106
    VFO and Memory Scanning.................................... 107
    VFO Scanning....................................................... 107
    Memory Scan........................................................ 108
    PMS (Programmable Memory Scanning).............. 109
    Using the GPS Function........................................... 110
    What is GPS?........................................................ 110
    Positioning Using GPS.......................................... 110
    Displaying the Position Information..................... 112
    Using the GM Function............................................ 113
    What is the GM Function?.................................... 113
    Basic Methods to Use the GM Function............... 113
    Using the WIRES-X Function.................................. 115
    What is the WIRES-X Function?.......................... 115
    RTTY (Radio Teletype) Operation.......................... 116
    Example of Connecting RTTY Communications
    Device.................................................................... 116
    DATA (PSK) Operation............................................ 118
    Example of Data Communications Device........... 118
    Menu Mode................................................................ 120
    Installation of Optional Accessories........................ 139
    FC-40 External Automatic Antenna Tuner
    (for Wire Antenna)................................................ 139
    Active-Tuning Antenna System (ATAS-120A)
    Operation............................................................... 141
    Mounting Bracket MMB-90 Installation............... 143
    Specifications............................................................. 144
    Index........................................................................... 146

    Page 4

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 7

    Accessories & Options
    Supplied Accessories

    DC Power Cord

    Hand Microphone (MH-31A8J)

    Spare Fuse (25A)

    Operating Manual
    Warranty Card
    World Map
    Sticker
    The illustrations above may vary slightly from the actual accessories.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 5



  • Page 8

    Accessories & Options
    Available Options
     For details, see “Installation of Optional Accessories” on page 139 or the catalog.

    Ultra-High-Fidelity Desktop
    Microphone

    Lightweight Stereo Headphone

    Remote Control Keypad

    YH-77STA

    FH-2

    MD-200A8X

    Linear Amplifier/AC Power Supply
    VL-1000/VP-1000

    Others
    Hand Microphone
    DTMF Hand Microphone
    Desktop Microphone
    Active Tuning Antenna (Automatic Type)
    Antenna Base Kit
    Active Tuning Antenna (Manual Type)
    Mobile Bracket
    External Power Supply (13.8 VDC 23 A)
    External Power Supply (13.8 VDC 25 A)
    VL-1000 Linear Amplifier Connection Cable
    Packet Interface Cable

    Page 6

    External Automatic Antenna Tuner
    FC-40

    MH-31A8J (equivalent to the supplied microphone)
    MH-36E8J
    MD-100A8X
    ATAS-120A
    ATBK-100
    ATAS-25
    MMB-90
    FP-1023A (U.S.A. only)
    FP-1030A
    CT-58
    CT-39A

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 9

    Before You Begin
    Base Station Wire Stand
    The heavy wire stand on the bottom of the transceiver allows the transceiver to be tilted upward for better viewing. Simply fold the stand forward to raise the front of the transceiver, and fold it back against the bottom case to lower the front
    of the FT-991.

    Adjusting the Main Tuning Dial Torque
    The torque (drag) of the Main Tuning Dial knob may be adjusted according to your preferences. Rotate the skirt at the
    base of the knob clockwise to reduce the drag, or counter-clockwise to increase the drag.
    Skirt

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 7



  • Page 10

    Before You Begin
    Adjusting the Clock
    Use the following procedure to adjust the clock shown at the top right of the LCD display.
    1. Press and hold the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Touch [TIME/DATE] on the LCD.

    MENU(SETUP) button

    LCD

    3. Enter the present time with the number keys on the
    LCD, then touch [ENT].

    4. Touch [DATE] on the LCD to switch the screen.

    [TIME]

    Sets the time display. Touching this button toggles between UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and the local
    time. When UTC is displayed, “Z” appears on the right
    side of the time.

    5. Enter month, day, and year with the number keys on
    the LCD, then touch [ENT].

    [DATE]

    Sets the date display. Touching this button toggles between MM/DD/YYYY and YYYY/MM/DD.

    [DST]

    Touching this button switches daylight saving time between ON and OFF. When daylight saving time is set to
    on, “D” appears on the right side of the time.

    6. Touch [BACK] on the LCD to return to the setup
    mode display.
    7. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to return to the
    radio operation display.

    Page 8

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 11

    Before You Begin
    Inputting the Call Sign
    When turning on the power for the first time after purchase, or after resetting the transceiver, enter your own call sign.
    The call sign will be displayed on the start screen when turning on the power and will be used to identify the station
    when sending messages during digital communication.
    1. Press and hold the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Touch [MY CALL] on the LCD.

    MENU(SETUP) button

    LCD



    Advice:
    The time duration of the initial call sign start up
    screen display may be changed from the Menu item
    “005 MY CALL INDICATION”.

    3. Touch a character key. The touched character will be
    displayed at the top of the screen. Enter each character of your call sign.

    Advice:
     Up to 10 characters (letters, numbers, and symbols) can be entered.
    4. Touch [ENT] on the LCD. The call sign setting is
    completed and the display will switch to the frequency display screen.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 9



  • Page 12

    Before You Begin
    Resetting the Microprocessor
    Resetting Memories (Only)

    Use this procedure to reset (clear) the previously stored
    Memory channels, without affecting any configuration
    changes you may have made to the Menu settings.

    ON/OFF Switch

    AM button

    1. Press the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn the
    transceiver off.
    2. While holding the AM button in, press and hold
    in the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn the transceiver on. Once the transceiver comes on, you may
    release the buttons.
    Note:
    The FT-991 cannot erase the memory channels “01”
    (and “5-01” through “5-10”: U.S. version).

    Menu Resetting

    Use this procedure to restore the Menu settings to their
    factory defaults, without affecting the programmed
    memories.

    ON/OFF Switch

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    1. Press the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn the
    transceiver off.
    2. While holding the MENU(SETUP) button in, press
    and hold in the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn
    the transceiver on. Once the transceiver comes on,
    release the buttons.

    Full Reset

    Use this procedure to restore all Menu and Memory settings to their original factory defaults. All Memories will
    be cleared by this procedure.

    ON/OFF Switch

    FAST Button

    LOCK Button

    1. Press the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn the
    transceiver off.
    2. While holding the FAST and LOCK buttons in,
    press and hold in the front panel ON/OFF switch to
    turn the transceiver on. Once the transceiver comes
    on, release the buttons.

    Page 10

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 13

    Before You Begin
    Antenna Considerations
    The FT-991 is designed for use with any antenna system providing a 50 Ohm resistive impedance at the desired operating frequency. While minor excursions from the 50-Ohm specification are of no consequence, if the Standing Wave
    Ratio (SWR) present at the Antenna jack is greater than 3:1, the transceiver’s Automatic Antenna Tuner may not be able
    to reduce the impedance mismatch to an acceptable value.
    Every effort should be made to ensure that the impedance of the antenna system be as close as possible to the specified
    50-Ohm value. Note that the “G5RV” type antenna does not provide a 50-Ohm impedance on all HF Amateur bands. An
    external wide-range antenna coupler must be used with this antenna type.
    Any antenna to be used with the FT-991 must be fed from the transceiver with 50 Ohm coaxial cable. Therefore, when
    using a “balanced” antenna such as a dipole, remember that a balun or other matching/balancing device must be used to
    ensure proper antenna performance.
    The same precautions apply to any additional (receive-only) antennas connected to the antenna jacks. If the receive only
    antennas do not have impedance near 50 Ohms at the operating frequency, It may be necessary to install an external antenna tuner to obtain optimum performance.

    About Coaxial Cable
    Use high-quality 50-Ohm coaxial cable for the lead-in to your FT-991 transceiver. All efforts at providing an efficient
    antenna system will be wasted if poor quality, lossy coaxial cable is used. This transceiver utilizes standard “M” (“PL259”) type connectors.

    Typical PL-259 Installation

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 11



  • Page 14

    Before You Begin
    Grounding
    The FT-991 transceiver, like any other HF communications apparatus, requires an effective ground system for maximum electrical safety and best communications effectiveness. A good ground system can contribute to station efficiency
    in a number of ways:
     It can minimize the possibility of electrical shock to the operator.
     It can minimize RF currents flowing on the shield of the coaxial cable and the chassis of the transceiver. Such currents may lead to radiation, which can cause interference to home entertainment devices or laboratory test equipment.
     It can minimize the possibility of erratic transceiver/accessory operation caused by RF feedback and/or improper
    current flow through logic devices.
    An effective earth ground system may take several forms. For a more complete discussion, see an appropriate RF engineering text. The information below is intended only as a guideline.
    Typically, the ground connection consists of one or more copper-clad steel rods, driven into the ground. If multiple
    ground rods are used, they should be positioned in a “V” configuration and bonded together at the base of the “V” which
    is nearest the station location. Use a heavy, braided cable (such as the discarded shield from type RG-213 coaxial cable)
    and strong cable clamps to secure the braided cable(s) to the ground rods. Be sure to weatherproof the connections
    to ensure many years of reliable service. Use the same type of heavy, braided cable for the connections to the station
    ground bus (described below).
    Inside the station, a common ground bus consisting of a copper pipe of at least 25 mm diameter should be used. An alternative station ground bus may consist of a wide copper plate (single-sided circuit board material is ideal) secured to
    the bottom of the operating desk. Grounding connections from individual transceivers, power supplies, and data communications devices (TNCs, etc.) should be made directly to the ground bus using a heavy, braided cable.
    Do not “Daisy-Chain” ground connections from one electrical device to another and thence to the ground bus. This
    method may nullify any attempt at effective radio frequency grounding. See the drawing below for examples of proper
    grounding techniques.
    Inspect the ground system - inside the station as well as outside - on a regular basis to ensure continued performance
    and safety.
    Besides following the above guidelines carefully, note that household or industrial gas lines must never be used in an
    attempt to establish an electrical ground. Cold water pipes may, in some instances, help in the grounding effort, but gas
    lines represent a significant explosion hazard, and must never be used.
    Transceiver LinearLinear
    Transceiver
    Amplifier
    Amplifier
    GND

    GND

    GND

    Transceiver LinearLinear
    Transceiver
    Amplifier
    Amplifier

    TNC TNC

    GND

    GND

    GND

    GND

    GND

    GND

    TNC TNC

    GND

    GND

    GND

    "Daisy Chain"
    "Daisy Chain"

    Proper Ground Connection

    Page 12

    Improper Ground Connection

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 15

    Before You Begin
    Connection of Antenna and Power Cables
    Please follow the outline in the illustration regarding the proper connection of antenna coaxial cables, as well as the DC
    power cable. The DC power connector for the FT-991 must only be connected to a DC source providing 13.8 Volts DC (±15
    %), and capable of at least 23 Amperes of current. Always observe proper polarity when making DC connection:
    The RED DC power lead connects to the Positive (+) DC terminal.
    The BLACK DC power lead connects to the Negative (–) DC terminal.
    To prevent damage from
    lightning, atmospheric electricity, electrical shock etc., please
    provide a good earth ground.
    Use a short,
    thick, braided
    cable to connect your station
    equipment to the
    buried ground rod (or alternative earth
    ground system).

    Check the DC volta g e a n d c u r re n t
    rating (+13.8 V, 23 A) of the
    power supply before connecting to the transceiver.

    We recommend the use of the FP-1030A (USA market only) AC Power Supply. Other models of power supplies may
    be used with the FT-991, but the 13.8 VDC input voltage, 23 Ampere current capability, and DC cable polarity guidelines described above must be strictly followed.
    Note that other manufacturers may use the same type of DC power connections as the FT-991 transceiver; however, the
    wiring configuration may be different from that specified for the FT-991 transceiver. Serious damage can be caused if
    improper DC connections are made; consult with a qualified service technician when in doubt.
    High RF voltage is present in the TX RF section of the transceiver while transmitting.
    Absolutely! Do not touch the TX RF section while transmitting.
    Permanent damage can result when improper supply voltage, or reverse-polarity voltage, is applied to the FT991. The Limited Warranty on this transceiver does not cover damage caused by application of AC voltage, reverse polarity DC, or DC voltage outside the specified range of 13.8 V ±15 %. When replacing fuses, be certain
    to use a fuse of the proper rating. The FT-991 requires a 25 Amp blade fuse.
    Note:
     Do not place the FT-991 in a location with direct exposure to sunshine.
     Do not place the FT-991 in a location exposed to dust and/or high humidity.
     Ensure adequate ventilation around the FT-991, to prevent heat build-up and possible reduction of performance due
    to high heat.
     Do not install the FT-991 on an unstable desk or table. Do not place it in a location where objects may fall onto it
    from above.
     To minimize the possibility of interference to home entertainment devices, take all precautionary steps including
    separation of TV/FM antennas from Amateur transmitting antennas to the greatest extent possible, and keep transmitting coaxial cables separated from cables connected to home entertainment devices.
     Ensure that the DC power cord is not subject to undue stress or bending, which could damage the cable or cause it to
    be accidentally unplugged from the rear panel DC IN jack.
     Be certain to install your transmitting antenna(s) so they cannot possibly come in contact with TV/FM radio or other
    antennas, or with power or telephone lines.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 13



  • Page 16

    Installation and Interconnections
    Connection of Microphone, Headphone and Remote Control Keypad




     DOWN
     UP
     +5V
     MIC GND
     MIC
     PTT
     GND
     FAST

    Lightweight Stereo
    Headphone
    YH-77STA

    Note:
    Make sure to turn off the power of the transceiver before connecting or disconnecting the microphone.

    Remote Control Keypad
    FH-2
    If the FH-2 plug is removed from the jack
    while the FT-991 is in operation, the FT-991
    may be switched to the transmit mode.
    Turn off the power of the FT-991 before connecting or
    disconnecting the FH-2.

    Page 14

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 17

    Installation and Interconnections
    Key, Keyer, and Computer-Driven Keying Interconnections
    The FT-991 includes many features for the CW operator. These functions will be detailed in the “Operation” section
    later. Besides the built-in Electronic Keyer, two key jacks are provided, one on the front and one on the rear panel, for
    convenient connection to keying devices.
    The Menu selections permit configuring the front panel KEY jack according to the device connected. For example, a
    keyer paddle may be connected to the front panel KEY jack, and Menu item “012 KEYER TYPE” used to select paddle
    input.
    The KEY jack on the FT-991 utilize “Positive” keying voltage. Key-up voltage is approximately +3.3V DC, and keydown current is approximately 4 mA. When connecting a key or other device to the KEY jack, use only a 3-contact
    (“stereo”) 1/4” phone plug; a 2-contact plug will place a short between the ring and shaft (ground) of the plug, resulting
    in a constant “key-down” condition in some circumstances.

    KEY

    GND
    DOT DASH COMMON

    KEY NC GND
    DOT DASH COMMON

    Single key/Double-speed key

    Manipulator

    If the Keyer plug is removed from the jack while the FT-991 is in operation,
    the FT-991 may be switched to the transmit mode.
    Turn off the power of the FT-991 before connecting or disconnecting the Keyer.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 15



  • Page 18

    Installation and Interconnections
    VL-1000 Linear Amplifier Interconnections
    Be sure that both the FT-991 and VL-1000 are turned off, and then follow the installation recommendations contained
    in the illustration.
    Note:
     Refer to the VL-1000 Operating Manual for details regarding amplifier operation.
     Do not attempt to connect or disconnect coaxial cables when your hands are wet.
     Set the Menu item “143 TUNER SELECT” to “LAMP”.
     Since the ALC cable is connected to the REM/ALC jack, the optional FH-2 cannot be connected.

    Coaxial Cable (50Ω)
    Connect to “INPUT 1” of the VL-1000

    CT-58 ALC Cable (Option)

    CONTROL
    VP-1000

    DC 48V IN

    INPUT 1

    GND
    VP-1000

    CT-58 Band Data Cable (Option)

    ALC 1

    ANT 3

    ANT 2

    Set the front panel’s
    INPUT switch to the
    “INPUT1”.

    BAND-DATA 1

    REM/ALC

    INPUT
    TUN/LIN

    ANT
    HF/50MHz

    ANT
    144/430MHz
    GND

    DC 13.8 V

    ANT 1

    HF/50MHz Antenna

    144/430MHz Antenna

    To link the FT-991 and VL1000 Power switches, set the
    VL-1000 REMOTE switch to
    the “ON” position.

    Page 16

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 19

    Installation and Interconnections
    Plug/Connector Pinout Diagrams
    MIC

    GPS/CAT

     DOWN
     UP
     +5V
     MIC GND
     MIC
     PTT
     GND
     FAST




    ① DCD
    ② SERIAL OUT/RXD
     (GPS DATA IN)
    ③ SERIAL IN
    ④ DTR
    ⑤ GND
    ⑥ DSR
    ⑦ RTS
    ⑧ CTS
    ⑨ RI

    ⑨ ⑧ ⑦ ⑥

    ⑤④ ③ ②①

    (as viewed from front panel)

    (as viewed from rear panel)

    RTTY/DATA

    TUN/LIN




















    DATA IN
    GND
    PTT
    SHIFT
    DATA OUT
    SQL













    (as viewed from rear panel)

     +13V OUT
     TX GND
     GND
     TX D (BAND A)
     RX D (BAND B)
     BAND C
     RESET (BAND D)
     TX INH





    (as viewed from rear panel)

    DC IN

    KEY
    Manipulator

    DOT

    Single key/Double-speed key

    DASH COMMON

    KEY

    GND

    Do not use
    2-conductor type plug

    (as viewed from rear panel)

    EXT SPKR

    PHONE
    SIGNAL (RIGHT)

    SIGNAL

    GND
    SIGNAL (LEFT)

    GND

    REM/ALC
    NC

    TX REQ

    EXT ALC

    GND

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    REMOTE

    GND

    Page 17



  • Page 20

    Front Panel Controls & Switches
    5

    6

    1
    2
    3

    4

    9





    ON/OFF Switch

    Press and hold in this switch for one second to turn
    the transceiver on. Similarly, press and hold in this
    switch for one second to turn the transceiver off.
    m Connect the FT-991 transceiver to a commercially available DC power supply. Turn the DC supply on to place the transceiver in standby mode.
    The transceiver must be in standby mode to turn
    it on using the ON/OFF switch. For details on
    how to connect a commercially available DC
    power supply, see page 13.
    m Press the ON/OFF switch briefly while the power is on, the receiver audio from the speaker will
    be muted for about 3 seconds (Mute function).



    KEY





    GND

    KEY NC GND

    When connecting a single straight key

    m When connecting a key or other device to the
    KEY jack, use only a 3-contact (“stereo”) 1/4”
    phone plug; a 2-contact plug will place a short
    between the ring and the (grounded) shaft of the
    plug, resulting in a constant “key-down” condition.
    m Key-up voltage is +3.3 V, and key-down current
    is about 4 mA.
    Note:
    A 2-contact plug cannot be used in this jack.



    Connect headphones to this ϕ3.5 standard stereo
    jack.
    m Inserting a headphone plug into this jack will deactivate the internal and external speakers.
    Note:
    When wearing headphones, we recommend that you
    turn the AF Gain levels down to their lowest settings
    before turning power on, to minimize the impact on
    your hearing caused by audio “pops” during switch-on.

    MIC Jack

    This 8-pin jack accepts input from a microphone utilizing a traditional YAESU HF transceiver pinout.

    DOT DASH COMMON

    DOT DASH COMMON

    When connecting an electronic keyer paddle

    Page 18

    7

    PHONES Jack

    KEY Jack

    Connect a telegraph key or electronic keyer paddle
    to use for CW mode operation.

    8




     DOWN
     UP
     +5V
     MIC GND
     MIC
     PTT
     GND
     FAST

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 21

    Front Panel Controls & Switches















    F(M-LIST) Button

    Press the button briefly to display the function menu
    screen where the operation settings for a variety of
    functions may be configured.
    Press this button again to close the function menu
    screen.
    Press and hold this button for more than one second
    to display the menu list screen where the memory
    channel data may be reviewed.
    m While displaying the memory data, rotate the
    [ MULTI ] knob to review all data in memory
    channels.
    Press this button again to close the memory list
    screen.



    MODE Button

    Switch the radio modulation form (operating mode).
    Press this button to display the radio modulation
    form selection screen, then touch and select your desired modulation form.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    Press this button briefly to display the menu mode
    screen (see page 120) where you can set a variety
    of functions.
    Press this button again (or touch [BACK ] on the
    touch panel) to close the menu mode screen.
    Press and hold this button for more than 1 second to
    display the setup screen where you can configure the
    following settings.
    • MY CALL: Setting the call sign (see page 9)
    • LAT/LON: Setting longitude/latitude (see page
    112)
    • TIME/DATE: Setting date and time (see page
    8)
    • CW TEXT: Entering CW TEXT (see page 87)
    Press this button again to close the setup screen.



    MULTI Knob

    Adjust transmit output, microphone gain and operations of other functions (see page 22).

    BAND Button

    Switch the operation band (operation frequency
    band). Press this button to display the operation band
    selection screen, then touch and select the desired
    band.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 19



  • Page 22

    Front Panel Controls & Switches
    13

    12

    10

    11

    20

    17

    18

    23
    19
    24
    21
    25

    14











    15

    16

    Note:
     Since the transceiver transmits automatically during automatic tuning, make sure to connect an
    antenna or dummy load before tuning up.
     When the antenna or dummy load does not match
    the impedance, “HI-SWR” will appear on the
    touch panel.

    A=B Button

    Pressing this button momentarily, sets the same frequency and data values of VFO-A to VFO-B.

    A/B Button

    Pressing this button momentarily, exchanges the
    frequency and memory channel data, of VFO-A and
    VFO-B.

    RCL/STO Button

    Press and hold this button for more than one second
    to write the frequency and data currently set for
    VFO-A onto the quick memory bank (QMB) (see
    page 97).
    m 5 channels are available for QMB memories.
    Press the button briefly to recall the data written onto
    the quick memory banks (QMB) one by one.



    TUNE Button

    This is the on/off switch for the FT-991 Automatic
    Antenna Tuner.
    m Press the [TUNE] button briefly to display the
    “TUNER” indicator on the touch panel and activate the antenna tuner.
    Press the [TUNE] button briefly again to turn the
    “TUNER” indicator off and disable the antenna
    tuner.
    m Press the [TUNE] button for about 1 second to
    start “automatic tuning”. The “TUNER” indicator will flash.

    Page 20

    22



    C.S Button

    Press this button momentarily to directly recall a favorite Menu Selection.
    m To program a Menu selection to the C.S button,
    press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the
    Menu. Select the Menu item you want to set as
    the short cut. Press the C.S button, then press the
    MENU(SETUP) button; this will lock in the selected Menu item as the short cut.

    TXW Button

    During a split operation, press and hold the TWX
    button to listen on the transmitter frequency while
    holding the button.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 23

    Front Panel Controls & Switches



    Main Tuning Dial Knob

    This large knob adjusts the operating frequency of
    VFO-A.
    Rotate clockwise to increase the operating frequency
    and rotate counter-clockwise to decrease the operating frequency.
    Operating Mode
    1 Step
    1 Dial Rotation
    LSB/USB/CW/RTTY/
    5 Hz (100 Hz)
    DATA-LSB/DATA10 Hz (100 Hz)
    USB/AM
    FM/DATA-FM/C4FM 100 Hz (1 kHz)

    1 kHz (200 kHz)
    2 kHz (20 kHz)





    20 kHz (200 kHz)

    Numbers in parentheses indicate steps when the FAST button is On.


















    Advice:
    The tuning steps for the Main Dial knob are set
    at the factory to: 10Hz (SSB/AM), 5 Hz (CW/
    RTTY/DATA-LSB/DATA-USB) and 100 Hz (FM/
    DATA-FM/C4FM) per step.
    In LSB, USB, CW, RTTY, DATA-LSB or DATAUSB mode, the frequency change amount (step
    width) may be toggled between “5Hz” and “10Hz”
    by pressing the F(M-LIST) button, and then touching [5/10Hz] on the LCD.







    FAST Button

    Pressing this button will change the tuning of the
    Main Tuning Dial knob (VFO-A) to a higher step
    rate.
    Press this button to double the main dial frequency
    variation. “
    ” in the LED indicator area will light
    up.
    Press this button again to restore the frequency varia” will disappear.
    tion to the original value. “

    LOCK Button

    This button toggles on/off locking of the Main Tuning Dial knob.
    Press this button to lock the main dial operations.

    ” will light up in the LED indicator area.
    Press this button again to unlock the main dial operations. “
    ” will disappear.

    CLAR Button

    During reception, press this button, then rotate the
    CLAR/VFO-B knob to adjust the VFO-A
    RX clarifier offset value (see page 34).
    m The clarifier offset value (frequency) can be restored to “0 (zero)” by pressing the CLAR button
    for more than 1 second.
    m Depending on the menu mode “040 CLAR
    MODE SELECT” setting, this button can work as
    the TX clarifier for changing only the transmit
    frequency (see page 73) or RX/TX clarifier for
    both receiving and transmitting (see page 34,
    73).

    FT-991 Operating Manual






    V/M Button

    This button toggles frequency control between VFOA and the memory system.
    m Pressing this button alternately recalls the VFO
    frequency data and the frequency data saved in a
    memory channel by turns.

    AM Button

    Pressing and holding this key for one second (until
    the double beep) copies the current operating data
    into the currently selected memory channel, overwriting any previous data stored there.
    Press this button briefly to display the memory check
    function screen, where the data saved in a memory
    channel may be reviewed.
    m While displaying memory data, rotate the MULTI
    knob to review the data in each memory channel.
    Press this button again, to close the memory list
    screen.

    SPLIT Button

    Press this button to operate split frequency between
    VFO-A (used for reception) and VFO-B (used for
    transmission) (see page 74).
    m Press and hold in the SPLIT button for one second to engage the “Quick Split” (see page 74)
    feature. VFO-B transmit will automatically be
    set to a frequency 5 kHz higher than the VFO-A
    receive frequency, with the same operating mode.
    The transceiver will operate in the Split mode.

    CLAR/VFO-B Knob

    During the VFO-A operation, rotate this knob to adjust the clarifier.
    During Split operation, this knob adjusts the operating frequency of VFO-B.

    RF GAIN Knob

    Adjust the receiver gain of the high frequency and
    mid-range frequency amplifier stages.
    m Rotate the knob clockwise to increase the gain.
    Rotate the knob fully clockwise to set the gain to
    the highest level for normal operations.

    AF GAIN Knob

    The AF GAIN knob sets the receiver audio volume
    level.
    m Rotate the knob clockwise to increase the receiver audio volume level.

    Page 21



  • Page 24

    About the Display
    TFT Liquid Crystal Display
    A variety of information such as VFO-A/VFO-B frequencies, mode, S-meter will appear on the LCD.
    Operating mode

    Operation frequency

    Clock

    Mode (radio modulation form)
    HI-SWR
    MULTI knob operation
    Icons

    GPS signal capturing
    VFO-B data
    Clarifier operation

    S-meter
    Meters
    Scope
    Waterfall
    Menu list
    Memory list
    Function menu

    Operating Mode Indicators
    Displays the current operating mode.
    VFO-A
    MEM
    MT

    Operating in VFO-A mode
    Operating in memory mode
    The memory tuning feature is in use

    QMB

    Operating with the quick memory feature

    PMS

    Programmable memory scanning

    MCK

    The memory check function is in use

    HOME
    EMG

    Recalling the home channel
    Recalling the frequency for emergency contact

    Current Mode
    (Modulation Form) Indicator
    Displays the current modulation form.

    HI-SWR Indicator

    Indicates antenna matching errors.
    When this warning appears, stop transmitting immediately, check and repair the antenna, connectors, cables,
    etc.

    MULTI Knob Operations

    Displays the functions operated with the MULTI knob
    (see page 19).
    The progress bar shows the operation status.
    RF-P

    Adjusts transmission output

    MIC-G

    Adjusts the microphone gain

    Main control buttons

    DNR

    Digital Noise Reduction function

    PROC

    Adjusts Speech Processor Gain

    MONI

    Adjusts the monitor level

    DT-G

    Adjusts the input level during data communication

    CH-D

    Frequency tuning in the pre-programmed steps

    SPEED
    APF
    PITCH
    SQL
    TONE

    Adjusts keying speed
    Audio Peak Filter function
    Adjusts the CW pitch
    Adjusts the squelch level
    Selects the tone frequency

    DCS

    Selects the DCS code

    MCH

    Selects the memory channel

    GRP

    Selects the memory group

    Icons

    Displays currently used functions.
    TUNER
    ATAS

    Antenna tuner
    Active Tuning Antenna System

    ATT

    The attenuator is in use

    SPLIT

    Running split operation

    DUP

    Recalling duplex memories

    [+]

    Plus shift

    [-]

    Minus shift

    IPO
    AMP1
    AMP2
    D.VOX

    The receiver amplifier is OFF
    The receiver amplifier is ON
    The VOX function activates during data communication

    NB-L

    Adjusts the noise blanker level

    SHIFT

    Shift function

    VOX

    The VOX function is in use

    WIDTH

    Width function

    ENC

    The tone encoder is in use

    Notch function

    DEC

    The tone decoder is in use

    Contour function

    DCS

    The digital code squelch is in use

    NOTCH
    CONT

    Page 22

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 25

    About the Display
    TFT Liquid Crystal Display
    The voice memory/contest memory keyer functions are in use.
    PLAY: Playing, REC: Recording

    PLAY
    REC

    S-Meter

    Displays the reception signal strength.
    To change the meter peak hold time
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select “009 BAR
    MTR PEAK HOLD”.
    3. Touch [SELECT], then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select the time to hold
    (OFF/0.5/1.0/2.0 seconds).
    4. Touch [ENTER], then [BACK] or press the
    MENU(SETUP) button.

    Meters

    The following information can be displayed below the
    S-meter.
    The displayed information is switched each time [METER] is touched on the panel.
    PO

    Displays transmitter output power.

    ALC

    Displays ALC voltage

    SWR

    Displays antenna matching state

    COMP

    Displays the speech processor compression level

    ID

    Displays the drain current of the final stage FET
    transistors

    VDD

    Displays the drain voltage of the final stage amplifier.
    The proper voltage is 13.8 V.

    Clock

    Indicates the current time.
    When receiving a GPS signal, the time is set automatically.

    GPS Signal Capturing Indicator

    Appears when an external GPS device is connected to
    the GPS/CAT jack on the rear panel and GPS signals
    are being acquired.

    VFO-B Data/Clarifier Operation

    Displays operation status of the radio modulation form
    and VFO-B frequency, etc.
    Displays the offset operation status and the clarifier offset value, etc.

    Main Control Buttons (SWAP)

    Frequently used functions can be assigned to these buttons.
    To change the function assigned
    to the main control button
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button.
    2. Touch [BACK]/[FWD] to display screens
    “SWAP F1” to “SWAP F4”.
    3. Touch one of the “SWAP F1” to “SWAP
    F4” screens and confirm the function you
    want to change flashes.
    4. Touch [BACK]/[FWD] to display the function you want to assign, then select and
    touch the function.
    5. Press the F(M-LIST) button.

    Scope/Waterfall

    Displays a spectrum or waterfall when the scope function (see page 40) is in use.

    Menu List

    Displays the menu item list when making settings in the
    menu mode.

    Memory List

    Displays the data saved in the memory channels.

    Function Menu

    Displays the function menu from which you can set a
    variety of functions.
    Touch [BACK]/[FWD] to switch the menu screen.

    Operation Frequency

    Displays the current operation frequency.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 23



  • Page 26

    About the Display
    LED Indicators
    Displays the transmit/receive status of the transceiver, and the main dial “FAST” and “LOCK”.

    RX Indicator

    LOCK Indicators

    TX Indicator

    Memory Mode
    RX/TX
    Indicators

    FAST Indicators

    Main Band
    RX/TX
    Indicators

    RX Indicator (Green)

    This indicator illuminates when the squelch opens.

    TX Indicator (Red)

    This indicator illuminates during transmission.

    Memory Mode RX/TX Indicators

    Green (Left):
    This indicator illuminates when the receiver is active on
    the memory channel.
    Red (Right):
    This indicator illuminates when the transmitter is active
    on the memory channel.

    Sub Band
    TX
    Indicator

    Sub Band TX Indicator

    Red (Right):
    This indicator illuminates when the transmitter is active
    on the main band (VFO-B).

    FAST Indicators

    This indicator appears when the Main Tuning Dial knob
    tuning rate is set to “fast” (see page 21).

    LOCK Indicators

    This indicator appears when the Main Tuning Dial knob
    is locked (see page 21).

    Main Band RX/TX Indicators

    Green (Left):
    This indicator illuminates when the receiver is active on
    the main band (VFO-A).
    Red (Right):
    This indicator illuminates when the transmitter is active
    on the main band (VFO-A).

    Page 24

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 27

    Rear Panel
    2

    1

    6

    3






    7

    GND

    Use this terminal to connect the transceiver to a good
    earth ground, for safety and optimum performance.
    Use a large diameter, short braided cable to make
    the ground connections. For details on grounding the
    transceiver, see “Grounding” on page 12.

    8



    This is the M-type coaxial connector for the 144
    MHz band and 430 MHz band antennas (50 ohms).

    GPS/CAT Jack

    This is the RS-232C jack for connecting a computer
    or a commercially available external GPS device.
    Connecting a computer to this jack, using a commercially available RS-232C straight cable, enables
    CAT control of the transceiver.

    ⑨ ⑧ ⑦ ⑥

    RTTY/DATA Jack

    This is the input/output jack to connect a terminal
    unit for RTTY and TNC for packet communications.


















    DATA IN
    GND
    PTT
    SHIFT
    DATA OUT
    SQL

    TUN/LIN Jack

    Connect the optional external antenna tuner “FC-40”
    or the linear amplifier “VL-1000”.















    11

    9

    ANT Jack (144/430MHz)





    5

    4

    10

    ⑤④ ③ ②①



    ① DCD
    ② SERIAL OUT/RXD
     (GPS DATA IN)
    ③ SERIAL IN
    ④ DTR
    ⑤ GND
    ⑥ DSR
    ⑦ RTS
    ⑧ CTS
    ⑨ RI

    DC IN Jack

    This is the DC power supply connection for the
    transceiver. Use the supplied DC cable to connect directly to a DC power supply, which must be capable
    of supplying at least 23 A @13.8 VDC.

     +13V OUT
     TX GND
     GND
     TX D (BAND A)
     RX D (BAND B)
     BAND C
     RESET (BAND D)
     TX INH

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 25



  • Page 28

    Rear Panel







    USB Jack

    Connect a computer with a commercially available
    USB cable to control the transceiver remotely from
    the computer using the CAT command.
    Inputting/Outputting audio signals and transmission
    control can also be done from the computer.
    Note:
     To control the transceiver remotely from the
    computer, a USB driver is required. For details
    on the USB driver, visit the Yaesu website.
     When using a USB cable connected to a computer, the transceiver may change to the transmit
    mode when the computer is started.

    EXT SPKR Jack

    This is the monaural jack to connect an external
    speaker (4 Ω to 8 Ω).
    Connecting an external speaker to this jack will deactivate the internal speaker.

    SIGNAL




    GND

    REM/ALC Jack

    Connect the optional remote control keypad “FH-2”.
    When a device such as a linear amplifier is connected, this is an external ALC current input jack.
    TX REQ

    EXT ALC

    GND

    NC

    REMOTE



    GND

    ANT Jack (HF/50MHz)

    This is the M-type coaxial connector to connect HF
    band and 50 MHz band antennas (50 ohms).

    Cooling fan

    Page 26

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 29

    MH-31A8J Microphone Switches
    2

    3

    4

    1
    5

    6










    PTT Switch

    Switches transmission/reception.
    Press to transmit and release to receive.

    DWN Button





    TONE Switch

    Switches transmission sound quality.
    Slide to the “1” side to make the transmit audio flat.
    Slide to the “2” side to emphasize transmit audio.

    Press the DWN (Down) button to scan the frequency
    downward.

    FST Button

    Allows switching the frequency variation (step),
    working in the same way as the FAST button on the
    transceiver front panel.

    UP Button

    Press the UP button to scan the frequency upward.

    Microphone

    Speak into the microphone in a normal tone of voice
    with the microphone 5 cm away from the mouth.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 27



  • Page 30

    Optional FH-2 Remote Control Switches
    With the optional remote control keypad FH-2, you can record and transmit your voice (Voice Memory) and control the
    Contest Memory Keyer during CW operation.
    m On SSB/AM/FM modes, five channels of storage and playback of voice memory (20 seconds each), using your own
    voice for recording (see page 68).
    m For the CW Memory Keyer, 5 channels are available for each of the MESSAGE Memory and the TEXT Memory (see
    page 84).

    4
    1
    5
    2
    6

    3

    Voice Memory: 5 Memory Channels for
    the Memory Keyer





    In the case of Voice Memory, up to 20 seconds of
    audio may be stored on each channel.
    “MESSAGE Memory” and “TEXT Memory” are
    available for the Contest Memory Keyer.
    Each “MESSAGE Memory” channel is capable
    of retaining a 50-character CW message using the
    PARIS standard for characters and word length.
    Each “TEXT Memory” channel is capable of retaining a maximum of 50 characters.

    Cursor Buttons



    When programming the Contest Memory Keyer,
    these buttons are used to move the cursor and select
    the text characters.
    The cursor may be moved in 4 different directions
    (up/down/right/left).
    Usually, these buttons are used for tuning the VFO
    frequency. Press the [p]/[q] buttons to change the
    frequency in the same increments as the microphone
    [UP]/[DWN] switches. Press the [t]/[u] buttons to
    change the frequency by 100 kHz steps.

    Page 28



    [P/B] Button

    When entering text, a space may be inserted where
    the cursor is flashing.

    [LOCK] Button

    The FH-2 key buttons may be locked by setting this
    switch to “ON”.

    [MEM] Button

    Press this button to store either a Voice Memory, or a
    Contest Keyer Memory.

    [DEC] Button

    When utilizing the sequential contest number capability of the Contest Keyer, press this button to
    decrement (decrease) the current Contest Number by
    one digit (i.e. to back up from #198 to #197, etc.).

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 31

    Optional MH-36E8J Microphone Switches
    The optional MH-36E8J is a handheld microphone equipped with the DTMF function that enables DTMF (Dual Tone
    Multi Frequencies) transmission.
    A lamp switch illuminates the DTMF keypad for easy viewing in the dark.

    4









    1

    3

    2

    5

    7

    6

    8

    9

    10

    DWN Button

    Press to tune down, hold to start scanning.



    UP Button

    Press to tune up, hold to start scanning.

    Microphone Element

    Speak across the face of the mic from about two
    inches away.

    DTMF Indicator

    When the DTMF is transmitted, this indicator glows
    red.

    PTT Switch







    Press and hold to transmit.



    FT-991 Operating Manual

    DTMF Keypad

    Press a key button while holding the PTT switch to
    transmit a DTMF tone.

    LOCK Switch

    Slide upward to lock the microphone controls and
    buttons.

    LAMP Switch

    Slide upward to illuminate the keypad.

    A Button

    This activates an accessory function.
    Activates the “first” mode when used with the FT991.

    B Button

    This activates a second accessory function.
    This button has no function when used with the FT991.

    Page 29



  • Page 32

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    Before turning on the main power, please verify the following items once more.
     Have you made all ground connections securely? See page 12 for details.
     Do you have your antenna(s) connected to the rear-panel Antenna jack(s)? See page 13 for details.
     Is your microphone (and/or key or paddle) connected? See pages 14, 15 for details.
     If using a linear amplifier, have all interconnections been successfully completed? See pages 16 for details.
     Please rotate the AF GAIN control to the fully counter-clockwise position, to avoid a loud blast of audio when the
    transceiver turns on. See page 21 for details.

    Page 30

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 33

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    Here is the typical start-up procedure for normal operation:
    ON/OFF Switch
    BAND Button

    MODE Button

    1. Turn on the external DC power supply.
    2. Press and hold in the front-panel ON/OFF switch
    until the transceiver turns on.
    3. The transceiver will start up on 7.000.00 MHz LSB,
    (or the previously used operating frequency) and
    normal operation may begin.
    Note:
    To turn power off, press and hold in the front panel
    ON/OFF switch for one second.
    4. Rotate the AF GAIN knob to set a comfortable audio level of the incoming signals or noise. Clockwise
    rotation of the AF GAIN knob increases the volume
    level.
    Note:
    When using headphones, start by rotating the AF
    GAIN knob counter-clockwise, then bring the volume level up after you put the headphones on. This
    will minimize the chance of damage to your hearing
    caused by an unexpectedly high audio level.
    5. Press the BAND button to display the list of Amateur
    bands on the LCD, then touch a key corresponding
    to the band on which you wish to begin operation.
    Advice:
     One-touch selection of each Amateur band between 1.8 and 50 MHz, 144 MHz, and 430 MHz
    is provided.
     The FT-991 utilizes a triple band-stack VFO
    selection technique, which permits storing up to
    three favorite frequencies and modes onto each
    VFO band register. For example, you may store
    one frequency each on 14 MHz CW, RTTY, and
    USB, then recall these frequencies by successive,
    momentary touches of the [ 14 ] on the screen
    displayed by pressing the BAND button. Each
    Amateur band key may similarly have up to three
    frequency/mode settings applied.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Main Tuning Dial Knob

    AF GAIN Knob

    6. Press the MODE button to display the available selections.
    Touch the corresponding key to select the desired
    operating mode.
    Advice:
     By convention in the Amateur bands, LSB is
    used on the 7 MHz and lower bands (with the
    exception of 60 meters), while USB is utilized on
    the 14 MHz and higher bands.
     When changing modes from SSB to CW, you
    will observe a frequency shift on the display.
    This shift represents the BFO offset between the
    “zero beat” frequency and the audible CW pitch
    (tone) you can hear (the pitch is programmed via
    the Menu item “059 CW FREQ DISPLAY”), even
    though the actual tone that you hear is not changing.
     To eliminate noise while the transceiver is not receiving any signal, press the F(M-LIST) button,
    then touch [SQL] on the LCD. “SQL” will appear on the LCD and the MULTI knob will function as the squelch knob. Rotate the MULTI knob
    to adjust the squelch until the noise disappears.

    Page 31



  • Page 34

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    7. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob to tune around the
    band, and begin normal operation.
    Advice:
     Clockwise rotation of the Main Tuning Dial knob
    increases the operating frequency, one “step”
    of the synthesizer at a time; similarly, counterclockwise rotation of the Main Tuning Dial knob
    will decrease the frequency. Two settings, one
    “normal” and one “fast”, are available for each
    operating mode. Pressing the FAST button engages the “Fast” tuning selection (see chart below).
    Main Tuning Dial Knob Tuning Rate

    Operating Mode

    1 Step

    LSB/USB/CW/RTTY/
    5 Hz (100 Hz)
    DATA-LSB/DATA10 Hz (100 Hz)
    USB/AM
    FM/DATA-FM/C4FM 100 Hz (1 kHz)

    1 Dial Rotation
    1 kHz (20 kHz)
    2 kHz (20 kHz)
    20 kHz (200 kHz)

    Numbers in parentheses indicate steps when the FAST button is On.

     If you want to make rapid frequency changes,
    there are several techniques available:
     Direct keyboard entry of the frequency.
     Use the microphone UP/DWN scanning keys,
    if your microphone is so equipped.

    Page 32

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 35

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    Operation on 60-Meter (5 MHz) Band (U.S. and U.K. version only)
    The recently-released 60-meter band is covered, in the FT-991, by fixed memory channels. These channels are set to
    USB or CW, and they appear between the “last” PMS channel (“P9U”) and the first “regular” memory channel (Channel
    1):
    1. Press the V/M button once to enter the “Memory”
    mode; the “MEM” icon will appear in the display.
    2. Touch [MCH] on the screen displayed by pressing
    the F(M-LIST) button. The “MCH” notation and a
    memory channel number will appear on the display
    to signify that rotation of the MULTI knob will allow
    selection of the memory channel.

    CLAR/VFO-B Knob

    Main Tuning Dial Knob
    V/M Button

    3. Memory channels (“5-01” through “5-10”) are
    pre-programmed, at the factory, with the permitted
    frequencies in the 5 MHz band, and the USB or CW
    mode is automatically selected on these channels.
    4. To exit from 60-meter operation and return to the
    VFO mode, just press the V/M button.

    Channel
    Number
    5-01
    5-02
    5-03
    5-04
    5-05
    5-06
    5-07
    5-08
    5-09
    5-10

    Frequency
    5.332000 MHz (SSB)
    5.348000 MHz (SSB)
    5.358500 MHz (SSB)
    5.373000 MHz (SSB)
    5.405000 MHz (SSB)
    5.332000 MHz (CW)
    5.348000 MHz (CW)
    5.358500 MHz (CW)
    5.373000 MHz (CW)
    5.405000 MHz (CW)

    Note:
    The frequencies and operating mode for 5 MHz band
    operation are fixed, and may not be changed.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 33



  • Page 36

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    CLAR (Clarifier) Operation
    The CLAR button and CLAR/VFO-B knob are used to offset the receive frequency, the transmit frequency, or both,
    from their settings on the VFO-A frequency. Four small numbers on the TFT Display show the current Clarifier offset.
    The Clarifier controls on the FT-991 are designed to allow setting a preset offset (up to ±9.99 kHz) without actually retuning, and then to activate it via the Clarifier CLAR button. This feature is ideal for following a drifting station, or for
    setting the small frequency offsets sometimes utilized in DX “Split” work.
    Here is the technique for utilizing the Clarifier:
    1. Press the CLAR button. The “RX” notation will appear in the TFT Display, and the programmed offset
    will be applied to the receive frequency.
    2. Rotation of the CLAR/VFO-B knob will allow you
    to modify your initial offset on the fly. Offsets of up
    to ±9.99 kHz may be set using the Clarifier.

    CLAR/VFO-B Knob
    CLAR Button

    To cancel Clarifier operation, press the CLAR button.
    The “RX” notation will disappear from the display.
    Advice:
    Turning the Clarifier off merely cancels the application of the programmed offset from the receive and/or
    the transmit frequencies. To clear the Clarifier offset,
    and reset it to “zero,” press and hold the CLAR button.
    The programmed offset is displayed in the small multichannel window of the frequency display.

    Page 34

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 37

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    LOCK
    You may lock the setting of the Main Tuning Dial knob (for VFO-A frequency tuning) to prevent accidental frequency
    change.

    Main Tuning Dial Knob Lock

    To lock the Main Tuning Dial knob, press the LOCK
    button that is located to the right of the Main Tuning
    Dial knob.

    LOCK Button

     “Lock” in the LED indicator area will light up
    To unlock the Dial setting, and restore normal tuning,
    press the LOCK button once more.

    LOCK Indicators

    DIMMER
    The illumination level of the TFT display and LED indicators (above the Main Tuning Dial knob), may be adjusted via
    Menu items 007 and 008.
    To adjust the illumination level:

    MENU Button

    1. Press the MENU button to enter the Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “007
    DIMMER LED” (for LED indicators) or “008 DIMMER TFT” (for TFT display).
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select the desired illumination level.
    MULTI Knob

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  • Page 38

    Basic Operation: Receiving on Amateur Bands
    VFO COLOR
    The background color of the VFO-A frequency in the TFT display may be selected via Menu item 006.
    1. Press the MENU button to enter the Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “006
    DISPLAY COLOR”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select from the following colors:
    BLUE (default) / GRAY / GREEN / ORANGE /
    PURPLE / RED / SKY BLUE

    Background color

    MENU Button

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  • Page 39

    Convenience Features
    Band Stack Operation
    The FT-991 utilizes a triple band-stack VFO selection technique that permits storing of up to three favorite frequencies
    and modes onto each band VFO register. For example, one frequency each on 14 MHz CW, RTTY, and USB may be
    stored and then recalled by successive, momentary touches of [14] on the screen displayed by the BAND button. Each
    Amateur band key may similarly have up to three frequency/mode settings applied. Note that only the VFO-A system
    has the band stacks.
    A typical setup, for the 14 MHz band, might be arranged like this:
    1. Program 14.025 MHz, CW Mode, then press the
    BAND button, and then touch [14] on the LCD.
    2. Program 14.080 MHz, RTTY Mode, then press the
    BAND button, and then touch [14] on the LCD.
    3. Program 14.195 MHz, SSB Mode, then press the
    BAND button, and then touch [14] on the LCD.

    BAND Button

    With this configuration, successive momentary touches
    of [14] on the screen displayed when the BAND button
    is pressed will allow you to step sequentially through
    these three VFOs.

    C.S (Custom Switch)
    The front panel C.S button may be programmed to directly access an often-used Menu Mode selection.

    C.S Setup

    1. Press the MENU button to engage the Menu mode;
    the Menu list will appear on the display.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the Menu item you
    want to access with the front panel C.S button.
    3. Press the C.S button to lock in your selection.
    4. Press the MENU button or touch [BACK] on the
    LCD to save the new configuration and exit to normal operation.

    MENU button

    C.S button

    MULTI Knob

    Menu Selection Recall via C.S button
    Press the C.S button.

    The programmed Menu item will appear on the display.
    Press the MENU button or touch [BACK] on the LCD
    exit to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 37



  • Page 40

    Convenience Features
    AMS (Automatic Mode Select) Operation
    The transceiver has the AMS (Automatic Mode Select) function which enables the transceiver to automatically select
    the most appropriate option out of the three communication modes according to the received signal while operating in
    C4FM mode.
    Besides C4FM digital signals, analog signals (FM) are also identified in order to automatically match the communication mode of the partner station.
    Note:
    The AMS function recognizes the three modes listed in the following table. Other communication modes cannot be recognized.
    Operating Mode

    V/D mode
    (simultaneous voice and data
    communication mode)
    Voice FR mode
    (Voice full-rate mode)
    Analog FM mode

    Display

    VW
    When AMS is “ON”: Red
    When AMS is “OFF”: Light blue
    AN
    Only when AMS is “ON”: Lights red

    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the C4FM operating mode. The “C4FM” icon appears in the display.
    Press the MODE button once more.

    2. Touch [AMS] on the LCD. The AMS function will
    switched to “ON” and the communication mode will
    be switched to match the received signal.

    Page 38

    Explanation of Modes

    DN
    When AMS is “ON”: Red
    When AMS is “OFF”: Light blue

    As the audio signal error is detected and repaired at the
    same time as the transmission of the digital audio signal,
    it becomes more difficult for conversations to be cut off. A
    basic digital mode of C4FM FDMA.
    Digital voice data is transmitted using the entire 12.5 kHz
    bandwidth. High quality voice communication is possible.
    Analog communication mode using the FM mode.
    This mode is effective for communication when the signal
    strength is so weak that the voice is cut off midway in the
    digital mode.

    MODE Button

    Note:
    In the V/D mode (“DN” displayed), the position information is included in the transmitted signal during the
    conversation, but in the Voice FR mode (“VW” displayed), the position information is not included.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 41

    Convenience Features
    AMS (Automatic Mode Select) Operation
    Setting the Operation of the AMS Function
    Using the AM function switches the communication mode to match the received signal but you can alternatively
    select and lock the transmission mode.
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the
    Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “092
    AMS TX MODE”.
    3. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD, rotate the MULTI
    knob to select the desired operation (see the following table).

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.
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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.
    Available
    Settings

    AUTO
    MANUAL

    DN
    VW
    ANALOG

    Explanation of Function
    TX/RX
    TX/RX

    RX
    TX
    RX
    TX
    RX
    TX

    The operating mode is automatically selected from the three communication modes to match the received signal.
    The operating mode is automatically selected from three communication modes to match the received signal.
    Pressing the Microphone PTT switch momentarily, toggles between the Digital (C4FM) and Analog (FM)
    communication modes.
    The RX mode is automatically selected from the three communication modes to match the received signal.
    The TX mode is automatically changed to the “DN” mode.
    The RX mode is automatically selected from the three communication modes to match the received signal.
    The TX mode is automatically changed to the “VW” mode.
    The RX mode is automatically selected from the three communication modes to match the received signal.
    The TX mode is automatically changed to the “FM” mode.

    Toggling to the Digital Communication Mode
    Without using the AMS function, you can select and lock the digital communication mode (DN or VW).
    1. Touch [AMS] on the screen to set the AMS function to “OFF”.
    2. Touching [DIGITAL] on the screen switches the
    digital communication mode between the following modes.
    DN (V/D Mode): As the audio signal error is detected and repaired at the same time as the
    transmission of the digital audio signal,
    it becomes more difficult for conversations to be cut off. A basic digital mode of
    C4FM FDMA.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    VW (FR Mode): Digital voice data is transmitted using the entire 12.5 kHz bandwidth.
    High quality voice communication is possible.

    Page 39



  • Page 42

    Convenience Features
    SCOPE
    The SCOPE function provides a spectrum display of the band conditions. Both strong and weak signals can be clearly
    displayed on the TFT screen. In the MANUAL mode, the scope frequency spectrum is scanned one time and displayed.
    In the “Continuous Sweeping mode”, the scope spectrum is repeatedly swept and displayed. When operating in the “ASC
    (Automatic Spectrum-Scope Control) mode” the sweep is automatically carried out in conjunction with the movement
    and operation of the main dial. The scope sweep and span may be optimized according to your preferences and purposes.
    Note: Since the FT-991 has only one receiver the audio will be muted while the spectrum scope is scanning.
    Touch [SWEEP] on the LCD to display the band conditions (spectrum).
     The transceiver is equipped with three types of
    sweeping mode: “MANUAL mode”, “Continuous
    sweeping mode” and “ASC (Automatic SpectrumScope Control) mode”. Refer to the advice below to
    select the optimal mode according to your preferences and purposes.
    Advice:
     Width of scope display may be set in Menu item “120
    SCP SPAN FREQ”.
     The sweeping interval may be set in Menu item “118
    SCP START CYCLE”.
     “Spectrum display mode” or “Waterfall display
    mode” may be selected in Menu item “117 SCP
    DISPLAY MODE”.

    Reception frequency

    Transmission frequency

    Lights up when transmission frequency
    is outside of the display range
    Reception frequency: Green
    Transmission frequency: Red

    Width of scope

    Example of waterfall display

    Page 40

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 43

    Convenience Features
    SCOPE
    Sweep Mode
    Three sweep modes are available for the scope function as described below.

    MANUAL Mode

    Touch [SWEEP] on the LCD to sweep across the band one time, and display band conditions.

    Continuous Sweeping Mode

    Touch and hold [SWEEP] on the LCD to mute the receiver begin the continuous sweep operation. The spectrum
    scope will start sweeping the band segment continuously. While rotating the main dial, you can continuously
    monitor the band condition.
    To stop sweeping, touch [SWEEP] on the LCD again.

    ASC (Automatic Spectrum-Scope Control) Mode

    Quickly rotate the main dial to mute the reception sound. The spectrum scope will automatically start sweeping
    and continue sweeping until you completely stop rotating the main dial. While observing the display, move the
    dial close to the desired frequency. Stop turning the main dial to stop the spectrum scope completely, and then
    you can hear the received signal. Now you may slowly rotate the main dial to tune in the received signal while
    listening to the receiver audio and the sweeping is disabled.
     You can change the rotation speed of the main dial to switch to sweeping motion in the Menu item “119 ASC
    DIAL SPEED”.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 41



  • Page 44

    Convenience Features
    More Frequency Navigation Techniques
    Keyboard Frequency Entry

    Setting with the MULTI Knob

    Example: Enter 14.250.00 MHz
    1. Press the BAND button to begin the direct frequency
    entry process.
    2. Touch [ENT] on the LCD. The first digit of the frequency (the leftmost digit) will blink.
    3. Enter, in order, the digits of the operating frequency,
    touching the keys on the LCD
    The decimal point after the “MHz” portion of the
    frequency must be entered, but no decimal point is
    required after the “kHz” portion.
    4. Touch [ENT] on the LCD once more to complete
    the operating frequency entry. A short “beep” will
    confirm that the entry was successful, and the new
    operating frequency will appear on the display.

    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    menu list. Touch the [CH DIAL] icon to activate this
    function and cause the MULTI knob to function as
    the frequency adjustment knob.

    The Operating frequency may be entered directly into
    the current VFO, using the display screen keyboard by
    pressing the front panel BAND button.

    Rotate the MULTI knob to set the frequency in the preprogrammed frequency steps. The frequency step can be
    changed.

    CH-D (CH DIAL) indicator

    2. Touch [CH DIAL] to select the desired frequency
    step. Touching [CH DIAL] switches the frequency
    as follows.
    Operating Mode

    AM



    Advice:
    If you attempt to enter a frequency outside the operating range of 30 kHz - 56 MHz, the microprocessor
    will ignore the attempt, and will return to the previous operating frequency. If this happens, please try
    again, taking care not to repeat the error in the frequency entry process.

    Page 42

    SSB/CW/RTTY/
    DATA-LSB/DATA-USB
    FM/C4FM/
    DATA-FM

    Frequency Step

    2.5  5  9  10  12.5  25 
    2.5  …
    1  2.5  5  1  …
    5  6.25  10  12.5  15  20
     25  5  …

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to change the frequency in
    the selected frequency steps.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 45

    Convenience Features
    More Frequency Navigation Techniques
    Using the UP/DWN Buttons of the
    Supplied MH-31A8J Hand Microphone

    The UP/DWN buttons on the supplied MH-31A8J Hand
    Microphone may also be used to manually scan the frequency upward or downward.
    In modes other than AM/
    FM, the frequency changes
    by the same step as the main
    dial.
    When the microphone FST
    button is pressed, the tuning
    rate increases by a factor of
    ten, in a manner similar to
    the transceiver front panel
    FAST button.
    The frequency change
    amount (step size) differs
    depending on the preset
    modulation form and FST button condition.
    Operating
    Mode
    CW/RTTY/
    DATA-LSB/
    DATA-USB
    LSB/USB/AM
    FM/C4FM/
    DATA-FM

    UP

    DWN

    FST
    +
    UP

    FST
    +
    DWN

    +5 Hz

    −5 Hz

    +100 Hz

    −100 Hz

    +10 Hz

    −10 Hz

    +100 Hz

    −100 Hz

    +5 kHz

    −5 kHz

    +50 kHz

    −50 kHz

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 43



  • Page 46

    Convenience Features
    Receiver Operation (Front End Block Diagram)
    The FT-991 includes a wide range of special features to suppress the many types of interference that may be encountered on the HF bands. However, real world interference conditions are constantly changing, so optimum setting of the
    controls is somewhat of an art, requiring familiarity with the types of interference and the subtle effects of some of the
    controls. Therefore, the following information is provided as a general guideline for typical situations, and a starting
    point for your own experimentation.
    The FT-991 interference-fighting circuitry begins in its “RF” stages, and continues throughout the entire receiver section. FT-991 allows configuration of the features described below.

    DNR (Digital Noise Reduction)

    CONTOUR Filter

    The DSP’s Digital Noise Reduction (DNR) feature utilizes 15 different mathematical algorithms to analyze
    and suppress different noise profiles encountered on the
    HF/50 MHz bands. Choose the selection that provides
    the best noise suppression, and allows the signal to rise
    up out of the noise.

    The DSP Contour filter has the unique ability to provide either a null or a peak in tunable segments of the
    receiver passband. You may suppress interference and
    excessive frequency components of an incoming signal,
    or you may peak those tunable frequency segments. The
    level of the null or peak, and the bandwidth, over which
    it is applied, are adjustable via the Menu.

    AGC

    IF SHIFT

    The AGC system automatically adapts to changing signal and fading characteristics, making reception possible
    under the most difficult conditions.

    The passband center frequency of the IF DSP filter may
    be moved up or down by adjusting this control.

    IF WIDTH

    The width of the IF DSP filtering may be adjusted using
    this control.

    The FT-991 uses the 15 kHz roofing filter on AM/
    FM/C4FM modes. All the other modes use the
    3 KHz filter automatically. There is no manual
    selection possible.

    IF NOTCH

    The IF Notch filter is a high-Q notch filter that can eliminate, or significantly reduce an interfering carrier.

    DNF (Digital Notch filter)

    When multiple interfering carriers are encountered during reception, the Digital Notch Filter can significantly
    reduce the level of these signals.

    VHF/
    UHF
    ANT

    HF/
    50MHz
    ANT

    RF

    1st IF
    69.450 MHz

    HF/50MHz
    ATT

    BPF

    1st Local

    144MHz
    LPF

    RF AMP/
    IPO

    BPF

    1st
    IF AMP

    3 kHz
    15 kHz

    3rd
    IF AMP

    MCF

    DSP
    UNIT

    2nd IF
    450 kHz

    1st Local
    RF AMP

    3rd IF
    24 kHz

    2nd Local
    3rd Local

    RF AMP

    430MHz
    LPF

    ROOFING
    FILTER

    2nd IF
    9 MHz

    BPF
    2nd Local

    FM DET

    C4FM
    DSP UNIT

    FM

    C4FM

    Front End Block Diagram

    Page 44

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 47

    Interference Rejection
    ATT (Attenuator)
    When the desired signal is extremely strong or the noise level is high on a low frequency band, activate the attenuator to
    reduce the incoming signal from the antenna.
    F(M-LIST) Button
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [ATT] on
    the LCD. The “ATT” indicator will appear in the
    DSP display.
    Advice:
     The incoming signal level is reduced by 12dB
    (Signal voltage is reduced to 1/4 compared to OFF).
    Displays ATT

    2. To restore full signal strength through the Attenuator
    circuit, touch [ATT] on the LCD to return the ATT
    display to the “OFF” position.
    Advice:
    If the noise level is high or the received signal is extremely strong, the incoming signal level can be suppressed with the
    IPO/ATT settings.
    If the S-meter fluctuates S-3 or more in the noise level, or the received signal is extremely strong and it causes a high Smeter indication (+20dB or more), activate the attenuator.
    Since IPO does not only attenuate the incoming signal, but also improves the cross modulation characteristic, try to activate the IPO first. If the signal is still strong, also use the ATT. In this way, you can attenuate the incoming signal and
    noise effectively.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 45



  • Page 48

    Interference Rejection
    IPO (Intercept Point Optimization)
    The IPO feature allows the operator to optimize the characteristics of the receiver front end, contingent on the current
    noise level and the strength of incoming signals.
    Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    menu list. Touch the [IPO] function repeatedly, to set
    the desired characteristic of the receiver front end, according to the chart below.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    AMP1: Amplifies the incoming signals, using a low
    distortion RF preamplifier (gain: approx. 10
    dB).
    AMP2: Amplifies the incoming signals, using a
    2-stage low-distortion RF preamplifier (total
    gain: approx. 20 dB).
    IPO: Bypasses the RF preamplifier, yielding direct
    feed to the first mixer.
    Note:
    AMP1 does not function below the 1.8 MHz frequency
    range.
    The selected receiver RF preamplifier will be indicated
    in the IPO column of the Key Function Display on the
    TFT screen.
    Displays IPO

    Advice:
     On the 10 MHz and lower bands, it is generally not
    necessary to use any preamplifier at all; selecting the
    “IPO” position as described above will increase the
    strong-signal-handling capability of the receiver, and
    generally result in more pleasant reception due to the
    reduced ambient noise level. If you can hear band
    noise with the preamplifiers disengaged, then a preamplifier is generally not needed.

    Page 46

    About 10dB

    About 10dB

    1.8 MHz ~ 56 MHz

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 49

    Interference Rejection
    IF Noise Blanker (NB) Operation
    The FT-991 includes an effective IF Noise Blanker, which can significantly reduce noise caused by automotive ignition
    systems.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    menu list. Touch the [NB] function icon briefly to
    reduce short duration pulse noise like that from
    switching transients, automobile ignitions and power
    lines. The Noise Blanker will be set to “ON”.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    2. If desired, the Noise Blanker level may be adjusted
    via Menu item “025 NB LEVEL” to the point where
    the offending noise is best reduced or eliminated.
    See box below for details.
    Advice:
     The noise attenuation can be selected from
    10dB/30dB/50dB via Menu item “024 NB REJECTION”.
    3. To end Noise Blanker operation, touch [NB] on the
    TFT display once more. The “OFF” will appear in
    the TFT display, confirming the Noise Blanker is no
    longer in operation.
    Adjusting the Noise Blanker Level
    1. Press the MENU button to engage the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “025
    NB LEVEL”.
    3. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD

    MENU button

    MULTI Knob

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    4. Rotate the MULTI knob to the point where the
    offending noise is best reduced or eliminated.
    5. Touch [ ENTER ] on the LCD, then press the
    MENU button or touch [BACK] on the LCD to
    lock in the new setting and exit to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

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    Page 47



  • Page 50

    Interference Rejection
    CONTOUR Control Operation
    The Contour filter system provides a gentle perturbation of the IF filter passband. The Contour is set to either suppress,
    or boost specific frequency components, and thus enhances the sound and readability of a received signal.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    menu list. Touch [CONT] to activate the CONTOUR
    function and set the MULTI knob as the CONTOUR
    adjustment knob.
    2. Touch [CONT ] on the TFT display. The Contour
    function will be set to “ON”.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    CONT (Contour) indicator
    MULTI Knob

    CONT (Contour) level indicator

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to achieve the most natural
    sounding audio reproduction of the incoming signal.
    Advice:
     Rotate the MULTI knob to display the Contour
    center frequency (10 Hz to 3,200 Hz) below the
    [CONT] indicator.
     The level indicator shows the amount of attenuation for your reference.
    4. To cancel Contour tuning, touch [ CONT ] on the
    TFT display.
    Advice:
     The Contour circuit operation will be set to “OFF”.
     Touching [CONT] changes the Contour circuit operation between “ON” and “OFF”.
     The Contour function attenuation and bandwidth can
    be set in Menu items “114 CONTOUR LEVEL” and
    “115 CONTOUR WIDTH” (refer to the instruction
    on the right).

    Refer to Figure “B”, this illustrates a “dip” in the
    center of the Contour filter passband. The Contour filter places a low-Q “notch” in the passband,
    per the settings of Menu items “114 CONTOUR
    LEVEL” and “115 CONTOUR WIDTH”. Counterclockwise rotation of the MULTI knob causes the
    notch to move toward a lower frequency within
    the passband, while clockwise rotation causes the
    notch to move toward a higher frequency within
    the passband. By removing interference or unwanted frequency components of the incoming
    signal, it is possible to make the desired signal
    rise out of the background noise/interference, and
    significantly enhance intelligibility.

    A

    B

    C

    IF BANDWIDTH

    IF BANDWIDTH

    IF BANDWIDTH

    MULTI

    MULTI

    MULTI

    Quick Point:
    By judicious use of the Contour filter, the “shoulder” of the passband response may be altered, or components may be
    removed from within the passband, allowing the desired signal to rise above the background noise and interference in a
    manner not obtainable with other filtering systems.

    Page 48

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 51

    Interference Rejection
    IF SHIFT Operation (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA Modes)
    IF SHIFT permits moving the DSP filter passband higher or lower, without changing the pitch of the incoming signal,
    and thus reduces or eliminates interference. Because the tuned carrier frequency is not varied, there is no need to re-tune
    the operating frequency to eliminate the interference. The total passband tuning range for the IF SHIFT system is ±1.2
    kHz.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    menu list. Touch [SHIFT] to reduce the interference.
    The MULTI knob functions as the SHIFT adjustment
    knob.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    SHIFT indicator
    SHIFT level indicator

    MULTI Knob

    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to the left or right to reduce
    interfering signals.
    Advice:
     Rotate the MULTI knob to display the shift offset
    of the IF filter (−1,200 Hz to +1,200 Hz) below
    the [SHIFT] indicator.
     The level indicator shows the shift offset direction for your reference.

    Referring to Figure “A”, note the depiction of the
    IF DSP filter as the thick line, with MULTI knob
    in the 12 o’clock position. In Figure “B”, an interfering signal has appeared inside the original
    passband. In Figure “C”, you can see the effect
    of rotating the MULTI knob. The interference
    level is reduced by moving the filter passband so
    that the interference is outside of the passband.
    A B C
    Desired Signal

    Desired Signal

    QRM

    Desired Signal

    QRM

    IF BANDWIDTH

    IF BANDWIDTH

    IF BANDWIDTH

    MULTI

    MULTI

    MULTI

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 49



  • Page 52

    Interference Rejection
    WIDTH (IF DSP Bandwidth) Tuning (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA Modes)
    The IF WIDTH tuning system allows you to vary the width of the DSP IF passband, to reduce or eliminate interference.
    Moreover, the bandwidth may actually be expanded from its default setting, should you wish to enhance incoming signal fidelity when interference on the band is low.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    menu list. Touch the [WIDTH] icon to activate this
    function and cause the MULTI knob to function as
    the WIDTH adjustment knob.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    WIDTH indicator
    WIDTH level indicator
    MULTI Knob

    2. Rotate the MULTI knob counter-clockwise to narrow
    the bandwidth and reduce interference.

    Referring to Figure “B”, you can see the default
    bandwidth of the SSB mode.
    By rotating the MULTI knob to the left, the bandwidth will narrow (see Figure “A”), while rotation of the MULTI knob to the right, will increase
    the bandwidth as depicted in Figure “C”.
    The default bandwidths, and total bandwidth adjustment range, will vary according to the operating mode:
    SSB Mode: 1.8 kHz - 3.2 kHz (default: 2.4 kHz).
    CW Mode: 500 Hz - 3 kHz (default: 2.4 kHz)
    RTTY/DATA (LSB, USB) Modes: 500 Hz - 3
    kHz (default: 500 Hz)
    AM Mode: Fixed at 9 kHz
    FM/DATA-FM/C4FM Modes: Fixed at 16 kHz

    Page 50

    Advice:
     To increase the bandwidth, rotate the knob clockwise.
     Rotate the MULTI knob to display the bandwidth
    of the IF filter below the [WIDTH] indicator (Refer to the instruction below).
     For reference, the level indicator on the TFT display shows the bandwidth.

    A

    B

    C

    IF BANDWIDTH

    IF BANDWIDTH

    IF BANDWIDTH

    MULTI

    MULTI

    MULTI

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 53

    Interference Rejection
    WIDTH (IF DSP Bandwidth) Tuning (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA Modes)
    Using IF SHIFT and WIDTH Together
    The IF SHIFT and Variable IF WIDTH features
    together form a very effective interference-fighting filtering system.
    For example, in Figure “A”, you can see how interference has appeared both on the high and low
    sides of the desired signal. Touch [WIDTH] on
    the LCD, the interference from one side can be
    eliminated (Figure “B”). Next, rotate the MULTI
    knob to re-position the passband (Figure “C”),
    the interference on the opposite side can be removed, without re-introducing the interference
    previously eliminated in Figure “B”.
    A

    B

    Desired Signal

    QRM

    IF BANDWIDTH

    C

    Desired Signal

    QRM
    QRM

    Desired Signal

    QRM
    QRM

    IF BANDWIDTH

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Advice:
    The WIDTH and SHIFT features are the primary tools to use for best interference reduction.
    After narrowing the bandwidth (WIDTH) and/
    or adjusting the center of the passband (SHIFT),
    the Contour control may then yield additional
    signal-enhancement benefits on the net residual
    bandwidth. Even more, the IF NOTCH Filter
    (described later) may also be used, in conjunction with these filter systems, to significant advantage.

    QRM

    IF BANDWIDTH

    Page 51



  • Page 54

    Interference Rejection
    NARROW (NAR) One-Touch IF Filter Selection
    Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function menu list. Touch the [NAR/WIDE] button to enable one-touch,
    mode-specific, selection of a narrow IF DSP filter setting that does not require resetting the bandwidth control to the
    WIDTH/SHIFT system.
    Touching [NAR/WIDE] on the LCD once more returns
    the bandwidth control to the WIDTH/SHIFT system.
    The factory default bandwidths are:
    Operating Mode
    SSB
    CW
    RTTY/DATA-LSB/
    DATA-USB
    AM
    FM/DATA-FM
    (28/50/144/430
    MHz Bands)

    F(M-LIST) Button

    [NAR/WIDE] Touch Key
    “ON”
    “OFF”
    200 Hz - 1.8 kHz
    1.8 - 3.0 kHz
    (1.5 kHz)
    (2.4 kHz)
    50 - 500 Hz
    500 Hz - 3.0 kHz
    (500 Hz)
    (2.4 kHz)
    50 - 500 Hz
    500 Hz - 3.0 kHz
    (300 Hz)
    (500 Hz)
    6 kHz
    9 kHz
    9 kHz
    16 kHz

    : Depends on the [WIDTH] setting
    ( ): Default Bandwidth

    Advice:
     If [NAR/WIDE] on the LCD has been touched to
    engage the narrow filter, you may further adjust the
    narrow IF bandwidth by touching [WIDTH] on the
    TFT display and rotating the MULTI knob. The IF
    SHIFT may also be operated.
     When in the FM mode, touching [NAR/WIDE] on
    the TFT display will narrow both transmit and receive bandwidths.

    Page 52

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 55

    Interference Rejection
    IF NOTCH Filter Operation (SSB/CW/RTTY/DATA/AM Modes)
    The IF NOTCH filter is a highly effective system that allows cutting out an interfering beat note or other carrier signal
    from inside the receiver passband.
    1. Press the F(MLIST) button to show the functions
    listed on the TFT display.
    2. Touch [ NOTCH ] on the TFT display. The Notch
    function will be set to “ON”.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    NOTCH indicator
    NOTCH level indicator
    MULTI Knob

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to adjust the “null” position
    of the Notch filter.
    4. To cancel the NOTCH filter, touch [NOTCH] on the
    TFT display, “OFF” will appear in the display, confirming that the NOTCH filter is no longer in operation.
    Advice:
    Alternate touches of [ NOTCH ] , will switch the
    NOTCH filter between on and off.
    Advice:
     The bandwidth of the NOTCH filter (either narrow
    or wide) may be adjusted using Menu item “116
    IF NOTCH WIDTH”. The factory default setting is
    “WIDE”.

    The performance of the IF NOTCH filter is illustrated in Figure “A”, where the desired signal and
    the interfering heterodyne are shown within the
    IF passband. In Figure “B” the notching effect of
    the IF NOTCH filter is illustrated as the MULTI
    knob is rotated to eliminate the interfering heterodyne.
    A

    B

    Desired Signal

    QRM
    (Heterodyne)

    IF BANDWIDTH

    Desired Signal

    QRM
    (Heterodyne)

    IF BANDWIDTH

    MULTI

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 53



  • Page 56

    Interference Rejection
    Digital NOTCH Filter (DNF) Operation
    The Digital NOTCH Filter (DNF) is an effective beat-canceling filter that can null out a number of interfering beat notes
    inside the receiver passband. Because this is an Auto-Notch feature, there is no adjustment knob associated with this filter.
    Advice:
    If a very strong interfering carrier is encountered, we recommend using the IF NOTCH filter first, as it is the most effective notching tool in the receiver section.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to show the functions
    listed on the TFT display, then touch [DNF] on the
    TFT display. The Digital NOTCH Filter will be set
    to “ON”.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    To disable the Digital NOTCH Filter, just repeat the
    above procedure, touching [DNF] on the LCD to choose
    “OFF”. The “DNF” will turn off, confirming that the
    Digital NOTCH Filter is not active.

    Digital Noise Reduction (DNR) Operation
    The Digital Noise Reduction (DNR) system is designed to reduce the level of ambient noise found on the HF and 50
    MHz bands. The (DNR) system is especially effective during SSB operation. While DNR is functioning, rotate the
    MULTI knob to adjust the DNR level. Any of 15 different noise-reduction algorithms can be selected; each of these algorithms was created to deal with a different noise profile. You will want to experiment with the DNR system to find the
    best setting corresponding to the noise currently being experienced.
    1. Press the F(MLIST) button to reveal the functions
    list on the TFT LCD display.
    2. Touch [DNR] on the LCD. The DNR function will
    be set to “ON”.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    DNR indicator
    DNR level indicator
    MULTI Knob

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to choose one of 15 algorithms that best reduces the noise level.
    4. To cancel the DNR filter, touch [DNR] on the LCD,
    “OFF” will appear in the display, confirming that the
    DNR system is no longer in operation.

    Page 54

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 57

    Tools for Comfortable and Effective Reception
    RF Gain
    The RF Gain control provides manual adjustment of the gain levels for the receiver RF and IF stages, to account for
    noise and signal strength conditions at the moment.
    1. The RF GAIN knob should, initially, be rotated to
    the fully clockwise position. This is the point of
    maximum receiver sensitivity.
    2. Counter-clockwise rotation of the RF GAIN knob
    will gradually reduce the system gain.
    Advice:
     As the RF GAIN knob is rotated counterclockwise
    to reduce the gain, the S-meter reading will rise. This
    indicates that the AGC voltage being applied to the
    receiver is increasing (this causes a reduction in receiver gain).
     Rotating the RF GAIN knob control to the fully
    counter-clockwise position will essentially disable
    the receiver, as the gain will be greatly reduced. In
    this case, the S-meter will appear to be “pegged”
    against the right edge of the analog S-meter scale.

    RF GAIN Knob

    Quick Point:
     Reception frequently can be improved by rotating
    the RF GAIN knob slightly counter-clockwise to the
    point where the “stationary” meter indication is set
    just about the same as the incoming noise level. This
    will reduce the RF gain to find a level of improved
    signal to noise ratio.
     The RF Gain control, along with the IPO and the Attenuator features, all affect the system receiver gain
    in different ways. The IPO generally should be the
    first feature engaged when dealing with a high noise
    level, or a crowded, high-level signal environment.
    Also, the IPO generally should be the first feature
    engaged, if the frequency is low enough to allow the
    preamplifier to be bypassed. Thereafter, the RF Gain
    and Attenuator features may be employed to provide
    precise, delicate adjustment of the receiver gain to
    fully optimize performance.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 55



  • Page 58

    Tools for Comfortable and Effective Reception
    Audio Peak Filter
    1. Press the F(MLIST) button to reveal the functions
    list on the TFT LCD display.
    2. Touch [APF] on the LCD. The APF function will be
    set to “ON”.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    APF indicator
    APF level indicator
    MULTI Knob

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to set the sound volume to a
    comfortable level.
    Advice:
     The APF bandwidth can be selected from NARROW/MEDIUM/WIDE via the Menu item “113
    APF WIDTH”.
    4. To cancel the APF action, touch [APF] on the LCD.
    The “OFF” will appear in the display, confirming that
    the APF system is no longer in operation.
    Advice:
    The APF may only be activated while the transceiver is
    in CW mode.

    Page 56

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 59

    Tools for Comfortable and Effective Reception
    AGC (Automatic Gain Control)
    The AGC system is designed to help compensate for fading and other propagation effects. The AGC characteristics can
    be individually set for each operating mode. The basic objective of AGC is to maintain a constant audio output level
    once a certain minimum threshold of signal strength is achieved.
    Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [AGC] on the
    LCD repeatedly to select the desired receiver-recovery
    time constant. You will observe the AGC status notation
    in the AGC column of the Key Function Display on the
    TFT display, denoting the AGC receiver-recovery time
    currently in use. For most operations, we recommend
    the “AUTO” mode. Additionally, you may disable the
    AGC by touching [AGC] on the LCD.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    Advice:
     If the AGC receiver-recovery time is set to “Off” by
    touching [AGC] on the LCD, the S-meter will no
    longer deflect. Additionally, you will likely encounter distortion on stronger signals, as the IF amplifiers
    and the following stages are probably being overloaded.
    Note:
     The “AUTO” selection mode selects the optimum
    receiver-recovery time for the reception mode.
    In this case, the selected receiver-recovery time in
    the AGC column of the Key Function Display glows
    green (Normally it glows blue).
     Touching [AGC] on the LCD allows selection of the
    desired receiver-recovery time constant. Normally,
    the “AUTO” selection is satisfactory for most situations, but in the event of operation on a crowded
    band where you wish to receive a weak signal, you
    may wish to change the setting to FAST. The AUTO
    mode selections are:
    Operating Mode
    LSB/USB/AM
    CW/FM/DATA-FM
    RTTY/DATA-LSB/DATA-USB

    AUTO AGC Selection
    SLOW
    FAST
    MID

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Quick point:
    Several aspects of AGC performance may be configured
    via the Menu. However, because AGC can have such a
    profound impact on overall receiver performance, we
    generally do not recommend any changes to the AGC
    Menu selections until you are thoroughly familiar with
    the performance of the FT-991.
    Terminology:
    Automatic Gain Control, or AGC, is a circuit that senses
    the received signal strength, and then limits the gain of
    the RF and IF stages to keep the output audio volume at
    a more-or-less constant level. AGC also protects the RF,
    IF, Audio, and DSP stages from overload, as it limits the
    signal strength that is allowed to flow, irrespective of the
    input signal level.

    Page 57



  • Page 60

    Tools for Comfortable and Effective Reception
    Adjustable Receiver Audio Filter
    The FT-991 includes an adjustable receiver audio filter, that provides precise, independent control of the low; and upper
    audio ranges.
    1. Press the MENU button to enter the Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to find Menu items “041”
    through “044” these parameters apply to the adjustment of the receiver audio filter in the AM mode,
    Menu items “050” through “053” apply to the
    adjustment of the RX audio filter in the CW mode,
    Menu items “066” through “069” apply to the adjustment of the RX audio filter in the DATA mode,
    Menu items “094” through “097” apply to the adjustment of the RX audio filter in the RTTY mode,
    and Menu items “104” through “107” apply to the
    adjustment of the RX audio filter in the SSB mode
    3. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD.

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    1((

       #/ .% 7 6 5. 1 2'

    F$QEV

       #/ *% 7 6 (4 ' 3

    1((

    MENU Button

    MULTI Knob

    4. Rotate the MULTI knob to adjust the receiver audio
    response as desired.
    5. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

       #/ .% 7 6 (4 ' 3

     *\

       #/ .% 7 6 5. 1 2'

    F$QEV

       #/ *% 7 6 (4 ' 3

    1((

    6. Press the MENU button or touch [BACK] on the
    LCD to exit to normal operation.

    Mode
    AM

    CW

    DATA

    RTTY

    SSB

    Page 58

    Menu Item
    041 AM LCUT FREQ
    042 AM LCUT SLOPE
    043 AM HCUT FREQ
    044 AM HCUT SLOPE
    050 CW LCUT FREQ
    051 CW LCUT SLOPE
    052 CW HCUT FREQ
    053 CW HCUT SLOPE
    066 DATA LCUT FREQ
    067 DATA LCUT SLOPE
    068 DATA HCUT FREQ
    069 DATA HCUT SLOPE
    094 RTTY LCUT FREQ
    095 RTTY LCUT SLOPE
    096 RTTY HCUT FREQ
    097 RTTY HCUT SLOPE
    104 SSB LCUT FREQ
    105 SSB LCUT SLOPE
    106 SSB HCUT FREQ
    107 SSB HCUT SLOPE

    Available Values

    OFF/100(Hz) - 1000(Hz)
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    700(Hz) - 4000(Hz)/OFF
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    OFF/100(Hz) - 1000(Hz)
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    700(Hz) - 4000(Hz)/OFF
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    OFF/100(Hz) - 1000(Hz)
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    700(Hz) - 4000(Hz)/OFF
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    OFF/100(Hz) - 1000(Hz)
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    700(Hz) - 4000(Hz)/OFF
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    OFF/100(Hz) - 1000(Hz)
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    700(Hz) - 4000(Hz)/OFF
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 61

    SSB/AM Mode Transmission
    ON/OFF Switch
    BAND Button

    MODE Button

    1. Press the BAND button to show the band list, and
    then touch a band key corresponding to the Amateur
    band on which you wish to operate. Press the BAND
    button again, to close the band list screen.
    2. Press the MODE button to show the mode list, and
    then select the operating mode by touching the corresponding key. Press the MODE button again, to
    close the mode list screen.
    Advice:
    By convention, LSB is used in the 7 MHz and lower
    Amateur bands for SSB communication, and USB is
    used on the 14 MHz and higher bands (the 10 MHz
    band is used for CW and data modes only).
    3. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob to adjust the operating frequency. Alternately, you may use the UP/
    DWN scanning buttons on the MH-31A8J Hand Microphone to scan up or down the current band.
    4. Press the microphone PTT (Push To Talk) switch to
    begin transmitting; speak into the microphone in a
    normal voice level.
    Advice:
     The “ ” indicator will light up in the TFT LED
    indicators area, confirming that transmission is in
    progress.
     When transmitting in the AM mode, set a maximum (carrier) power output of 25 Watts by pressing [RF PWR], then rotate the MULTI knob.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    Main Tuning Dial Knob

    5. Adjust the microphone amplifier gain to match the
    microphone and your voice level: Touch [METER]
    on the LCD repeatedly to select the “ALC”.
    Press and hold the PTT switch, and speak into the
    microphone in a normal voice level.
    In the SSB mode, touch [MIC GAIN] and then adjust MULTI knob so that the ALC meter stays within
    the ALC zone of the meter (up to half scale deflection) on voice peaks.

    In the AM mode, touch [MIC GAIN] and then adjust
    the MULTI knob so that the ALC meter does not deflect on voice peaks.
     When transmitting In the AM mode, adjust the
    MIC gain so that the PO meter does not deflect
    when speaking.
    6. Release the PTT switch at the end of the transmission. The transceiver will return to the receive mode.


    Page 59



  • Page 62

    SSB/AM Mode Transmission
    Advice:
     ALC meter deflection may be caused by excessive
    drive power, but also by reflected power detected
    in the antenna system. If the antenna impedance
    presented to the transceiver is other than 50 Ohms,
    ALC meter action may be observed that is not related to the proper setting of [MIC GAIN] on the
    LCD. Therefore, we recommend that you make [MIC
    GAIN] adjustments into a dummy load or antenna
    system presenting impedance very close to 50 Ohms.
     When making “on air” tests (such as setting the microphone gain), be sure to listen on the frequency
    before transmitting, to avoid interference to others
    who may already be using the frequency.

     Four techniques to implement Transmit/Receive control are provided on the FT-991. You may choose
    the technique(s) that best suit your operating needs:
     Pressing the microphone PTT switch will engage
    the transmitter.
     The rear panel PTT jack may be connected to a
    foot switch or other manual switching device in
    order to engage the transmitter.
     Touching [MOX] on the TFT display functions
    list will lock the transmitter on (The functions list
    may be displayed by pressing the F(MLIST) button). Touch [MOX] on the LCD again to return to
    receive.

     The VOX (Voice Operated Xmit) circuit will
    engage the transmitter automatically when you
    speak into the microphone. For details of VOX
    operation refer to page 70.

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    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 63

    Using the Automatic Antenna Tuner
    The Automatic Antenna Tuner (hereinafter referred to as the “ATU”) built into each FT-991 is designed to ensure a 50Ohm load for the final amplifier stage of the transmitter. We recommend using the ATU whenever operating the FT-991.
    Advice:
     Because the ATU of the FT-991 is located inside the station, it only adjusts the impedance presented to the transceiver at the station end of your coaxial cable feedline. It does not “tune” the SWR at the antenna feed point itself.
    When designing and building your antenna system, we recommend that every effort be made to ensure a low SWR
    at the antenna feed point.
     The ATU of the FT-991 includes 100 memories for tuning data. Eleven of these memories are allocated, one for
    each Amateur band, so that each band has at least one setting preset for use on that band. The remaining 89 memories are reserved for the 89 most-recent tuning points, for quick frequency change without the need to retune the
    ATU.
     The ATU in the FT-991 is designed to match impedances within the range of 16.7 Ohms to 150 Ohms, corresponding to an SWR of 3:1 or less on the 160 through 6 meter amateur bands. Accordingly, simple non-resonant whip antennas, along with random-length wires and the “G5RV” antenna (on most bands) may not be within the impedance
    matching range of the ATU.

    ATU Operation
    1. Use the Main Tuning Dial knob to set the radio to
    the desired operating frequency within the Amateur
    band.
    2. Press the TUNE button momentarily to place the
    ATU in the transmit line (no adjustment/tuning will
    occur yet). The “TUNER” icon will appear in the
    display.
    Quick Point:
    The momentary press of the TUNE button will turn
    the tuner on, and the microprocessor will automatically select the tuning point closest to the current
    operating frequency.

    TUNE Button

    Advice:
    The ATU circuit is located between the final amplifier
    and the rear-panel antenna jack; reception is not affected
    by the ATU.
    Quick Points:
    As shipped from the factory, only one ATU alignment
    point is saved on each Amateur band. This was memorized during the final alignment and performance verification stages on the production line.

    3. Press and hold in the TUNE button for one second to
    begin automatic tuning. The transmitter will be engaged, and the “TUNER” icon will blink while tuning is in progress. When the optimum tuning point
    has been reached, the radio will return to receive,
    and the “TUNER” icon will again glow steadily (instead of blinking).
    4. To disconnect the ATU from the transmit line, press
    the TUNE button momentarily. The “TUNER”
    icon will turn off, confirming that the ATU has been
    turned off. In the “Off” mode, the transceiver will be
    directly connected to the coaxial cable connected to
    your antenna, and will respond to whatever impedance is present at the station end of the coax.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Note:
    Please listen to the operating frequency before beginning the tuning process, to be sure you are not interfering with others who may already be using the frequency.
    Terminology:
    Antenna Tuner Memories: The ATU microprocessor
    makes a note of the selected tuning capacitors and inductors, and stores the data for each 10 kHz window in
    which tuning has occurred. This eliminates the need to
    re-tune every time you return to a frequency on which
    you have already completed the tuning process.

    Page 61



  • Page 64

    Using the Automatic Antenna Tuner
    About ATU Operation
    Figure 1 depicts a situation where normal tuning via the ATU has been successfully completed, and the tuning data has
    been stored in the ATU memory. The antenna system as seen by the transmitter is shown.
    In Figure 2, the operator has changed frequency, and the “HI-SWR” icon has appeared. The operator presses and holds
    in the TUNE button for one second to begin impedance matching using the ATU.
    If a high SWR condition exists (above 3:1), corrective action must be taken in the antenna system to bring the impedance closer to 50 Ohms. The ATU will refuse to memorize settings on frequencies where the SWR exceeds 3:1. A High
    SWR may indicate a mechanical failure in the feed system, and can lead to the generation of spurious signals causing
    TVI, etc.

    Feed Point SWR

    Frequency

    SWR after ATU Tuning

    Figure 1

    The “HI-SWR” icon appears on the display
    when you transmit on the frequency

    Memorized ATU Tuning

    SWR: 3.0

    Retuned Setting
    Frequency

    Figure 2

    About ATU Memories
    SWR (After tuning) Less than 2:1
    The tuner settings are stored in the ATU memory.
    SWR (After tuning) Greater than 2:1
    Tuning data will not be retained in memory. If you return to the same frequency, the tuning process must be repeated.
    SWR (After tuning) Greater than 3:1
    The “HI-SWR” icon will light up, and the tuner settings, if achieved, will not be memorized. Please investigate
    the high SWR condition and resolve the problem before attempting further operation using this antenna.

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  • Page 65

    Enhancing Transmit Signal Quality
    Parametric Microphone Equalizer (SSB/AM mode)
    The FT-991 includes a unique Three-Band Parametric Microphone Equalizer that provides precise, independent control over the low, mid and treble ranges in the voice waveform. You may utilize one group of settings when the speech
    processor is off and use an alternate group of settings when the speech processor is on. The speech processor feature is
    described in the next chapter.
    Quick Point:
    The Parametric Equalizer is a unique technique for adjusting the signal quality. The three audio ranges may be adjusted
    so precisely, it is possible to craft an audio response that provides a natural and pleasant sound that you may not have
    ever experienced before. Alternately, the effective “talk power” can be significantly enhanced.
    The configuration aspects that may be adjusted on the Parametric Equalizer are:
    Center Frequency: The center frequency of each of the three bands may be adjusted.
    Gain:
    The amount of enhancement (or suppression) within each band may be adjusted.
    Q:
    The bandwidth over which the equalization is applied may be adjusted.

    Setup of the Parametric Microphone Equalizer
    1. Connect the microphone to the MIC jack.
    2. Set the RF output power to minimum value.
    Advice:
     We recommend that you connect a dummy load
    to one of the Antenna jacks, and monitor your
    signal on a separate receiver, to prevent interference to other users.
     You will have the best chance of hearing the effects of adjustments if you wear headphones
    (connected to the separate monitor receiver)
    while listening to your transmitted signal.
    3. To adjust the Parametric Microphone Equalizer
    while the speech processor is disabled, press the
    F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MIC-EQ] to select
    “ON”.



    To adjust the Parametric Microphone Equalizer with
    the speech processor engaged, press the F(M-LIST)
    button, then touch [PROC] to select “ON”.

    4. Touch [MONI], if you want to listen on the FT-991
    internal monitor.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button. The Menu list
    will appear in the TFT display.
    6. Rotate the MULT knob to find the “EQ” Menu area,
    containing Menu items “121” through “129”; these
    parameters apply to the adjustment of the Parametric
    Microphone Equalizer when the speech processor
    is disabled. Menu items “130” through “138” apply to the adjustment of the Parametric Microphone
    Equalizer when the speech processor is engaged.
    7. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULT knob to adjust a particular Menu item.

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    Page 63



  • Page 66

    Enhancing Transmit Signal Quality
    Parametric Microphone Equalizer (SSB/AM mode)
    8. Press and hold the PTT switch, and speak into
    the microphone while listening to the effect of the
    changes you are making. Because the overall effect on the sound will change with each adjustment,
    make several passes through each adjustment area,
    to be sure that you achieve the optimum settings.
    9. When all adjustments have been completed, touch
    [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new settings.

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    10. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to return to normal operation. If you
    only touch [BACK] momentarily to exit the setup
    menu, none of the changes you performed will be
    stored.
    Advice:
    To roll off the excessive bass response prevalent in a
    wide-range of studio microphones, try setting the microphone equalizer for a 10 dB null at 100 Hz with a bandwidth of “1” or “2”, a 3 dB null centered on 800 Hz with
    a bandwidth of “3”, and then put an 8 dB peak centered
    on 2100 Hz with a bandwidth of “1.” These are starting
    recommendations; each microphone and user’s voice
    will be different, often requiring different settings.

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  • Page 67

    Enhancing Transmit Signal Quality
    Parametric Microphone Equalizer (SSB/AM mode)
    Activating the Parametric Microphone Equalizer

    1. Adjust [MIC GAIN] on the TFT display, as described
    on page 59.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MIC-EQ]
    on the TFT display to select “ON”. If you use the
    Parametric Microphone Equalizer with the speech
    processor engaged, press the F(M-LIST) button, then
    touch [PROC] to display the PROC level (from 1
    to 100), confirming that the Parametric Microphone
    Equalizer is engaged.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    3. Press the PTT switch on the microphone, and speak
    into the microphone in a normal voice level.
    4. To switch the Parametric Microphone Equalizer off,
    touch [MIC-EQ] on the LCD again.

    3-Stage Parametric Equalizer Adjustments (Speech Processor: “OFF”)
    Center Frequency
    “121 PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ” “100” (Hz) - “700” (Hz) / “OFF”

    “124 PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ” “700” (Hz) - “1500” (Hz) / “OFF”

    “127 PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ” “1500” (Hz) - “3200” (Hz) / “OFF”
    Parametric Gain
    “122 PRMTRC EQ1 LEVEL” (Low) “–20” (dB) - “10” (dB)

    “125 PRMTRC EQ2 LEVEL” (Mid) “–20” (dB) - “10” (dB)

    “128 PRMTRC EQ3 LEVEL” (High) “–20” (dB) - “10” (dB)
    Q (Bandwidth)
    “123 PRMTRC EQ1 BWTH” (Low) “1” - “10”

    “126 PRMTRC EQ2 BWTH” (Mid) “1” - “10”

    “129 PRMTRC EQ3 BWTH” (High) “1” - “10”
    3-Stage Parametric Equalizer Adjustments (Speech Processor: “ON”)
    Center Frequency “130 P-PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ” “100” (Hz) - “700” (Hz) / “OFF”

    “133 P-PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ” “700” (Hz) - “1500” (Hz) / “OFF”

    “136 P-PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ” “1500” (Hz) - “3200” (Hz) / “OFF”
    Parametric Gain
    “131 P-PRMTRC EQ1 LEVEL” (Low) “–20” (dB) - “10” (dB)

    “134 P-PRMTRC EQ2 LEVEL” (Mid) “–20” (dB) - “10” (dB)

    “137 P-PRMTRC EQ3 LEVEL” (High) “–20” (dB) - “10” (dB)
    Q (Bandwidth)
    “132 P-PRMTRC EQ1 BWTH” (Low) “1” - “10”

    “135 P-PRMTRC EQ2 BWTH” (Mid) “1” - “10”

    “138 P-PRMTRC EQ3 BWTH” (High) “1” - “10”

    Parametric Gain

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 65



  • Page 68

    Enhancing Transmit Signal Quality
    Using the Speech Processor (SSB Mode)
    The FT-991 Speech Processor is designed to increase “talk power” by increasing the average power output (via a sophisticated compression technique) and adjusting the audio quality to the menu settings (“130 P-PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ”,
    “133 P-PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ”, “136 P-PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ”). The result is improved intelligibility when conditions
    are difficult.
    F(M-LIST) Button
    1. Adjust [MIC GAIN] on the TFT display, as described
    on page 59.
    2. Touch [ METER ] on the TFT display to select
    “COMP” (Compression) meter.

    MULTI Knob

    3. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [PROC] to
    display the PROC level (from 1 to 100), confirming
    that the Speech Processor is engaged.

    4. Press the PTT switch on the microphone, and speak
    into the microphone in a normal voice level.
    5. Adjust the MULT knob to set the compression level
    within the 5 dB to 10 dB range.
    6. To switch the Speech Processor off, touch [PROC]
    on the TFT display once more. The “OFF” will appear in the display, confirming that the Speech processor is turned off.
    Advice:
     You may adjust the Parametric Microphone Equalizer when the speech processor is engaged, using
    Menu Items “130” through “138”. See page 136
    for details.

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  • Page 69

    Enhancing Transmit Signal Quality
    Adjusting the SSB Transmitted Bandwidth (SSB Mode)
    For SSB transmission, a default bandwidth of 2.4 kHz is available. This bandwidth provides reasonable fidelity along
    with good talk power, and is the typical bandwidth used for decades for SSB transmission. The transmit bandwidth may
    be varied by the operator, to provide different levels of fidelity or talk power, according to individual preferences.
    Here are the steps to adjust the SSB transmit bandwidth:
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “112
    SSB TX BPF”.
    3. Touch [SELECT] on the TFT display, then rotate
    the MULTI knob to select the desired bandwidth.
    The available selections are: 100-3000 Hz, 1002900 Hz, 200-2800 Hz, 300-2700 Hz, 400-2600 Hz.
    The default is 300-2700 Hz. A wider bandwidth will
    provide greater fidelity. A narrow bandwidth will
    compress the available transmitter power into less
    spectrum, resulting in more “talk power” for DX
    pile-ups.

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    4. Touch [ENTER] on the TFT display to save the new
    setting.

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    MENU(SETUP) Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    Advice:
    The Transmit Monitor function is a very helpful way to
    confirm the effect that changing the bandwidth will have
    on fidelity. To activate the Monitor function, press the
    F(MLIST) button to reveal the functions list on the TFT
    LCD display. Then touch the [MONI] button, you will
    be able to hear the difference in sound quality as you
    make bandwidth changes.
    Quick Points:
    The higher fidelity associated with wide bandwidth will
    be particularly enjoyable on the low bands during local
    rag-chew QSOs.

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the TFT display to exit to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 67



  • Page 70

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    Voice Memory (SSB/AM modes)
    You may utilize the Voice Memory capability of the FT-991 for repetitive messages. The Voice Memory system
    includes five memories capable of storing up to 20 seconds of voice audio each. The maximum that any memory can
    hold is 20 seconds.

    Voice Memory Operation

    You may also utilize the Voice Memory capability of the FT-991 by operating from the display or the optional FH-2
    Remote Control Keypad, which plugs into the rear panel REM/ALC jack.

    Recording Your Own Voice in Memory

    1. Select the LSB, USB, or AM mode using the front
    panel MODE button.
    2. Adjust [MIC GAIN] on the LCD, as described on
    page 59.
    3. Touch [MEM] on the LCD or press the [MEM] key
    on the FH-2. A blinking “REC” icon will appear in
    the display.

    7. Touch [MEM] on the LCD or press the FH-2 [MEM]
    key to complete the message storage process.

    Checking Your Recording

    4. Touch [CH1] through [CH5] on the LCD or press
    any of the FH-2 keys numbered [1] through [5] to
    select that memory storage register.

    Advice:
    If you do not press the PTT key (see next step) within five seconds, the memory storage process will be
    cancelled.
    5. Press the microphone PTT switch momentarily. The
    “REC” icon will glow steadily and recording will
    begin.
    6. Speak into the microphone in a normal voice level to
    record the message (such as “CQ DX, CQ DX, this
    is W 6 Delta X-Ray Charlie, W 6 Delta X-Ray Charlie, Over”). Remember that the time limit for recording any message is 20 seconds.

    Page 68

    1. Be sure that [VOX] and [BK-IN] functions are “Off”
    so transmit will not be activated. The function statuses may be observed on the TFT display by pressing
    the F(M-LIST) button.
    2. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press the FH-2
    [1] - [5] key (whichever register you just recorded
    in). The “PLAY” icon will appear in the display and
    you will hear the contents of the Voice Memory you
    just recorded.

    Advice:
    The playback level of the recording may be adjusted via
    Menu item “010 DVS RX OUT LEVEL”.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 71

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    Voice Memory (SSB/AM modes)
    Transmitting the Recorded Message

    1. Select the LSB, USB, or AM mode using the front
    panel MODE button.
    2. Press the front panel F(M-LIST) button to reveal the
    functions list on the TFT LCD display, then touch
    [BK-IN] on the LCD.

    3. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press the FH-2
    [1] - [5] key (whichever register you just recorded
    in). A “PLAY” icon will appear in the display and
    the message will be transmitted.

    Advice:
    The transmit (audio) level of the recording may be adjusted via Menu item “011 DVS TX OUT LEVEL”.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

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  • Page 72

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    VOX (SSB/AM/FM Modes: Automatic TX/RX Switching using Voice Control)
    Instead of using the microphone PTT switch or the [MOX] function (that may be displayed by pressing the F(M-LIST)
    button) to activate the transmitter, the VOX (Voice Operated Transmit) system may be used for hands-free activation of
    the transmitter, by the voice input to the microphone.
    F(M-LIST) Button
    MENU(SETUP) Button
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button, to reveal the functions
    list on the TFT LCD display, then touch [VOX] on
    the LCD to activate the function, “ON” will appear
    in the display.

    MULTI Knob

    2. Without pressing the PTT switch, speak into the
    microphone in a normal voice level. When you start
    speaking, the transmitter should be activated automatically. When you finish speaking, the transceiver
    should return to the receive mode (after a short delay).
    3. To cancel VOX and return to PTT operation, touch
    [VOX] on the LCD once more. The “VOX” indication will turn OFF, signifying that the VOX circuitry
    has been turned off.
    Advice:
     The VOX Gain may be adjusted to prevent accidental transmitter activation in a noisy environment. To
    adjust the VOX Gain:
    1) Activate the VOX circuitry, if necessary.
    2) Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu mode.
    3) Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “145
    VOX GAIN”, then touch [SELECT] on the LCD.

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    6) Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.
     The “Hang-Time” of the VOX system (the transmit/
    receive delay after the cessation of speech) may also
    be adjusted via the Menu mode. The default delay is
    500 msec. To set a different delay time:
    1) Activate the VOX circuitry, if necessary.
    2) Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu mode.
    3) Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “146
    VOX DELAY”, then touch [ SELECT ] on the
    LCD.

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    4) While speaking into the microphone, rotate the
    MULTI knob to the point where the transmitter
    is quickly activated by your voice, without background noise causing the transmitter to activate.
    5) When you are satisfied with the setting, touch
    [ENTER] on the TFT LCD display to save the
    new setting.

    Page 70

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    4) Rotate the MULTI knob while saying a brief syllable like “Ah” and listening to the hang time for
    the desired delay.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 73

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    VOX (SSB/AM/FM Modes: Automatic TX/RX Switching using Voice Control)
    5) When you are satisfied with the setting, touch
    [ENTER] on the TFT LCD display to save the
    new setting.

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    6) Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.
     The Anti-Trip setting adjusts the level of negative receiver audio feedback to the microphone, to prevent
    receiver audio from activating the transmitter (via
    the microphone). This setting can also be adjusted
    via Menu item “147 ANTI VOX GAIN”.
     VOX operation may be engaged on either Voice
    modes (SSB/AM/FM) or on AFSK-based Data
    modes. Use Menu item “144 VOX SELECT” (the selections are “MIC” and “DATA”).

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 71



  • Page 74

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    MONITOR (SSB/AM modes)
    You may listen to the quality of your transmitted signal using the Monitor feature.
    1. Touch [MONI] displayed by pressing the F(M-LIST)
    button to reveal the functions list on the TFT LCD
    display.
    2. Touch [MONI] on the LCD, the Moniter function
    will be set to “ON”. The MULTI knob serves as the
    MONITOR adjustment knob.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MONI (Monitor) indicator
    MONI (Monitor) level indicator

    MULTI Knob

    3. During transmission, rotate the MULTI knob to adjust the audio level in the Headphones or speaker.
    Clockwise rotation of this knob will increase the volume level.
    4. To switch the Monitor off again, touch [MONI] on
    the LCD once more. “OFF” will be displayed, confirming that the Monitor function is disengaged.
    Advice:
     Because the Monitor feature samples the transmitter IF signal, it can be very useful for checking the
    adjustment of the Speech Processor or Parametric
    Equalizer on SSB, and for checking the general signal quality on AM.

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    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 75

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    Split Operation Using the TX Clarifier
    For split TX/RX operation in “casual” pile-ups, where the split is less than 10 kHz, the TX Clarifier (Offset Tuning) feature may be utilized.
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “040
    CLAR MODE SELECT”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “TX” (the default setting is “RX”).

    CLAR/VFO-B Knob
    MENU(SETUP) Button

    CLAR Button

    MULTI Knob

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    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.
    6. Press the CLAR button. The “TX” icon will appear
    in the TFT display.



    Quick Point:
    The Clarifier is frequently used for receiver offset
    tuning. However, for DX pile-ups where the DX
    station is using a split of less than 10 kHz, the TX
    Clarifier function is usually the quickest way to set
    the transmitter to the desired offset frequency.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    7. Rotate the CLAR/VFO-B knob to set the desired
    transmitter offset. A maximum split of ±9.999 kHz
    may be set.
    8. To exit from TX Clarifier operation, press the CLAR
    button once more. The “TX” icon will disappear
    from the display.
    Advice:
     When listening to a “pile-up” calling a DX station, in
    order to find the station currently being worked, you
    may press the CLAR button. Then, use the CLAR/
    VFO-B knob to zero in on the station calling the DX
    (use the SPOT function on CW for precise alignment
    of your frequency). You may then press the CLAR
    button again to cancel the RX Clarifier, and return to
    reception on the DX station’s frequency.
     Just as with receiver Clarifier operation, the amount
    of offset from the original VFO frequency will appear in the display.
     As with receiver Clarifier operation, when you turn
    the TX Clarifier off, the last-used offset is remembered, and will be available if you turn the TX Clarifier back on. To clear the Clarifier offset, press and
    hold the CLAR button for more than 1 second.
    Quick Point:
    When attempting to work a DX station on CW in a split
    frequency pile-up, remember that a large number of other stations may also be using Yaesu transceivers with capability similar to that of your FT-991. On the DX side
    of the pile-up, everyone calling precisely on the same
    CW frequency will sound like a single tone! So you may
    have more success if you use the RX Clarifier to find a
    hole in the pile-up, instead of trying to zero-beat the last
    station worked by the DX station.

    Page 73



  • Page 76

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    Split-Frequency Operation
    A powerful capability of the FT-991 is its flexibility in Split Frequency operation using the VFO-A and VFO-B frequency registers. This makes the FT-991 especially useful for high-level DX-peditions. The Split operation capability is
    very advanced and easy to use.
    1. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob to set the desired
    RX frequency.
    2. Press the A/B button, then rotate the Main Tuning
    Dial knob to set the desired split TX frequency.
    3. Press the A/B button, then press the SPLIT button.
    The VFO-B frequency will be shown in the TFT display and the LED indicators will appear as below:
    VFO-A RX Indicator: “ON” (LED glows Green)
    VFO-A TX Indicator: “OFF” (LED Off)
    VFO-B RX Indicator: “OFF” (LED Off)
    VFO-B TX Indicator: “ON” (LED glows Red)
    A/B Button

    TXW Button

    SPLIT Button

    During Split operation, the VFO-A register will be used
    for reception, while the VFO-B register will be used for
    transmission. If you press the SPLIT button once more,
    Split operation will be cancelled.
    Advice:
     During Split operation, pressing the A/ B button will
    reverse the contents of VFO-A and VFO-B. Press the
    A/B button once more to return to the original frequency alignment.
     During Split operation you may listen to the TX frequency temporarily while pressing the TXW button
    located on the bottom left of the Main Tuning Dial
    knob.
    While pressing the TXW button during split operations, the frequency of transmit on VFO-B can be
    changed.
     During Split operation it is also possible to set VFOA and VFO-B to different Amateur bands if a multi
    band antenna is used.

    Page 74

    Quick Split Operation

    The Quick Split feature allows setting a one-touch offset
    of +5 kHz compared to the VFO-A frequency, to be applied to the transceiver VFO-B (transmit) frequency,
    Start with regular transceiver operation on the VFO-A.
    VFO-A RX Indicator: “ON” (LED glows Green)
    VFO-A TX Indicator: “ON” (LED glows Red)
    VFO-B RX Indicator: “OFF” (LED Off)
    VFO-B TX Indicator: “OFF” (LED Off)
    Press and hold in the SPLIT button for one second
    to engage the Quick Split feature, and apply a frequency 5 kHz above the VFO-A frequency to the
    VFO-B frequency register.
    The VFO configuration will then be:
    VFO-A RX Indicator: “ON” (LED glows Green)
    VFO-A TX Indicator: “OFF” (LED Off)
    VFO-B RX Indicator: “OFF” (LED Off)
    VFO-B TX Indicator: “ON” (LED glows Red)
    3. Press and hold in the SPLIT switch for one second
    to increment the Sub (VFO-B) offset frequency another +5 kHz.
    1.




    2.

    Quick Points:
     The offset of VFO-B from VFO-A is programmed
    via the Menu and is set to +5 kHz at the factory.
    However, other offsets may be selected using the following procedure:
    

    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “035
    QUICK SPLIT FREQ”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULT knob to select the desired offset. The available setting range is –20kHz - +20kHz (factory default: +5 kHz).

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    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 77

    Transmitter Convenience Features
    Split-Frequency Operation
    4. Touch [ENTER] button to save the new setting.

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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 75



  • Page 78

    CW Mode Operation
    The powerful CW operating capabilities of the FT-991 permit operation using an electronic keyer paddle, a “straight
    key”, or a computer-based keying device.

    Setup for Straight Key (and Straight Key emulation) Operation
    Before starting, connect your key line(s) to the front panel KEY jack. Be sure [BK-IN] displayed by pressing the F(MLIST) button is turned off for now.
    1. Press the MODE button, then touch [CW-LSB] or
    [CW-USB ] on the TFT LCD display. The “C-L”
    or “C-U” icon will appear in the display. The CW
    monitor is activated.

    MODE Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    2. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob to select the desired operating frequency.
    3. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [BK-IN]
    on the LCD to engage automatic activation of the
    transmitter when you close the CW key. The Breakin will be set to “ON”.

    Advice:
     When you close the CW key, the transmitter will
    automatically be activated, and the CW carrier
    will be transmitted. When you release the key,
    transmission will cease, and after a brief delay,
    receive will be restored. The delay time is userprogrammable per the discussion on page 83.
     As shipped from the factory, the FT-991 TX/RX
    system for CW is configured for “Semi-break-in”
    operation. However, using Menu item “056 CW
    BK-IN TYPE”, you may change this setup for full
    break-in (QSK) operation, whereby the switching is quick enough to hear incoming signals in
    the spaces between the dots and dashes of your
    transmission. This may prove very useful during
    contest and traffic handling operations.
    4. CW operation using the CW key may now proceed.

    Page 76

    Advice:
     The CW sidetone audio level may be adjusted by
    setting “MONITOR” (see page 72).
     You may practice sending CW listening to the sidetone only, without having the signal transmitted out
    over the air, if you press the front panel F(M-LIST)
    button to reveal the functions list on the TFT LCD
    display, and then touch the [BK-IN] button to set
    break-in to Off.
     If you reduce transmit power via the [RF PWR]
    function that may be displayed by pressing the F(MLIST) button, the ALC meter reading will increase;
    this is normal and does not indicate any problem
    whatsoever (because increased ALC voltage is being
    used to lower the power).
     To enable the keying operation in LSB/USB mode
    and send the CW signal without switching to CW
    mode, change Menu item “055 CW AUTO MODE”.
     The same frequency may be displayed when switching between SSB mode and CW mode by setting
    Menu item “059 CW FREQ DISPLAY”.
     By connecting the FT-991 to a computer, CW can
    be operated using free or commercially available
    software and setting Menu item “060 PC KEYING”.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 79

    CW Mode Operation
    Setup for Straight Key (and Straight Key emulation) Operation
    Terminology:
    Semi-break-in
    This is a pseudo-”VOX” mode used on CW, whereby the closure of the CW key will engage the transmitter, and
    release of the key will allow the receiver to recover after a short delay. No signals will be heard during the spaces
    between dots and dashes (unless the sending speed is extremely slow).


    Full break-in
    Full break-in (also known as “Full QSK”) involves very fast switching between transmit and receive, incoming
    signals may be heard between the dots and dashes as you send them. This allows you to hear a station that suddenly starts transmitting on your frequency, while you are in the midst of a transmission.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 77



  • Page 80

    CW Mode Operation
    Using the Built-in Electronic Keyer
    Connect the cable from your keyer paddle to the front panel KEY jack.
    1. Press the MODE button, then touch [CW-LSB] or
    [CW-USB ] on the TFT LCD display. The “C-L”
    or “C-U” icon will appear in the display. The CW
    monitor is activated.

    MODE Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    2. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob to select the desired operating frequency.
    3. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [KEYER]
    on the LCD to select “ON” to confirm that the builtin Electronic Keyer is now active.

    4. Touch [SPEED] on the LCD, then rotate the MULTI
    knob to set the desired sending speed (4 - 60 WPM).
    Advice:
     Rotate the MULTI knob to display the keying
    speed (4 - 60 WPM) below the [SPEED] indicator.
     By pressing either the “Dot” or “Dash” side of
    the paddle, the CW keying tone will automatically be generated.
    5. Touch [BK-IN] on the TFT display to engage automatic activation of the transmitter when either the
    “Dot” or “Dash” side of the paddle is pressed. The
    Break-in will be set to “ON”.

    Advice:
     When the keyer paddle is pressed, the transmitter
    will automatically be activated, and the CW characters (or a string of dots or dashes) will be transmitted. When the keyer paddle is released, transmission
    will cease, and after a brief delay, reception will be
    restored. The delay time is user-programmable, per
    the discussion on page 83.
     The CW sidetone audio level may be set using
    “MONITOR” (see page 72).
     If [BK-IN] is set to “OFF”, you may practice sending
    CW with the sidetone only, without having the signal
    go out over the air. (Press the front panel F(M-LIST)
    button to reveal the functions list on the TFT display ).
     If the transmitter power is reduced via [RF PWR]
    function, the ALC meter reading will increase; this
    is normal and does not indicate any problem whatsoever (because increased ALC voltage is being used
    to lower the power).
     The keying operation may also be enabled in LSB/
    USB mode to send the CW signal via the Menu item
    “055 CW AUTO MODE” without switching to CW
    mode.
     The same frequency may be displayed when switching between SSB mode and CW mode by setting
    Menu item “059 CW FREQ DISPLAY”.
     By connecting a computer, CW can be operated using free or commercially available software and setting Menu item “060 PC KEYING”.
     The electronic keyer operation mode can be changed
    via the Menu item “012 KEYER TYPE”.

    6. CW operation utilizing the CW paddle may now
    commence.

    Page 78

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 81

    CW Mode Operation
    Using the Built-in Electronic Keyer
    Full Break-in (QSK) Operation
    As shipped from the factory, the FT-991 TX/RX system for CW is configured for “Semi-break-in” operation.
    However, this setup may be changed to full break-in (QSK) operation by setting Menu item “056 CW BK-IN
    TYPE”. With full break-in QSK, the TX/RX switching is quick enough to hear incoming signals in the spaces between the dots and dashes of your transmission.
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “056
    CW BK-IN TYPE”.
    3. Press the [SELECT] button, and then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “FULL”.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

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    4. When the adjustments are complete, touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.
    A number of interesting and useful features are available for use with the Electronic Keyer operation.
    Setting the Keyer Weight (Dot/Dash) Ratio
    This Menu item may be used to adjust the dot/dash ratio for the built-in Electronic Keyer. The default weighting
    is 3:1 (a dash is three times longer than a dot).
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “014
    CW WEIGHT”.
    3. Touch the [SELECT] button, and then rotate
    the MULTI knob to set the weight to the desired
    value. The available adjustment range is a Dot/
    Dash ratio of 2.5 - 4.5 (default value: 3.0).

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

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    4. When your adjustments are complete, touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    Page 79



  • Page 82

    CW Mode Operation
    Using the Built-in Electronic Keyer
    Selecting the Keyer Operating Mode
    The configuration of the Electronic Keyer may be customized independently for the front panel KEY jack of the
    FT-991. This permits utilization of Automatic Character Spacing (ACS), if desired. This allows the use of an
    electronic keyer via the front jack and a straight key or computer-driven keying line via the rear panel jack.
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “012
    KEYER TYPE”.
    3. Press the [SELECT] button, and then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set the keyer to the desired mode.
    The available selections are:
    The built-in Electronic Keyer is
    OFF:
    turned off (“straight key” mode).
    Dots will be generated automatically
    BUG:
    by the keyer, but dashes must be sent
    manually.
    ELEKEY-A: A code element (“Dot” or “Dash”
    side) is transmitted upon releasing
    both sides of the paddle.
    ELEKEY-B: Releasing both sides of the paddle
    transmits the currently generated
    “Dash” side followed by “Dot” side
    (or reverse order).
    ELEKEY-Y: Pressing both sides of the paddle
    transmits the currently generated
    “Dash” side followed by “Dot” side
    (or reverse order).

    While transmitting the “Dash” side,
    the first transmitted “Dot” side will
    not be stored.
    Same as “ELEKEY” except that the
    ACS:
    spacing between characters is precisely set by the keyer to be the same
    length as a dash (three dots in length).

    Page 80

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    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

    ACS
    OFF

    ACS
    ON

    Morse
    "E" & "T"

    Inter-character
    スペース
    Spacing too short

    Morse
    "E" & "T"

    4. When the adjustments are complete, touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 83

    CW Mode Operation
    Using the Built-in Electronic Keyer
    Reversing the Keyer Polarity
    For left-handed operators in a contest, for example, the polarity can be reversed easily in the Menu mode without
    changing the keyer connection (the default setting is “NOR”).
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “013
    KEYER DOT/DASH”.
    3. Press the [ SELECT ] button, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select “REV.”

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

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    Advice:
     In the steps on the left, only polarities of the
    ELEKEY and ACS keyers can be changed.

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new
    setting.

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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 81



  • Page 84

    CW Convenience Features
    CW Spotting (Zero-Beating)
    “Spotting” (zeroing in on a received CW station) is a handy technique to ensure you and the other station are precisely
    on the same frequency.
    The Tuning Offset Indicator in the display may also be observed so you can adjust the receiver frequency to center the
    incoming station on the pitch corresponding to that of your transmitted signal.

    Using the Auto Zeroing System

    F(M-LIST) Button

    Using the SPOT System

    F(M-LIST) Button

    Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [ZIN] on the
    LCD to cause the receiving frequency to zero-in automatically while receiving the CW signal.

    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    list.
    2. Touch [MONI] on the LCD. The Monitor function
    will be set to “ON”. The MULTI knob will function
    as the MONITOR adjustment knob.
    MONI (Monitor) indicator
    MONI (Monitor) level indicator

    3. Touch [SPOT] on the LCD. While you are pressing and holding [SPOT], the tone is output from the
    speaker.

    Advice:
     In a tough DX pile-up, you may actually want to
    use the SPOT system to find a “gap” in the spread
    of calling stations, instead of zeroing in precisely
    on the last station being worked by the DX station.
    From the DX side, if a dozen or more operators (also
    using Yaesu’s SPOT system) all call precisely on the
    same frequency, their dots and dashes merge into a
    single, long tone that the DX station cannot decipher.
    In such situations, calling slightly higher or lower in
    frequency may get your call through.
    Quick Points:
     The displayed frequency on CW normally reflects
    the “zero beat” frequency of your offset carrier. That
    is, if you were to listen on USB on 14.100.00 MHz
    to a signal with a 700 Hz offset, the “zero beat” frequency of that CW carrier would be 14.100.70 MHz;
    the latter frequency is what the FT-991 displays, by
    default. However, you can change the display to be
    identical to what you would see on SSB by using
    Menu item “059 CW FREQ DISPLAY” and setting
    it to “DIRECT FREQ” instead of the default “PITCH
    OFFSET” setting.

    Page 82

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 85

    CW Convenience Features
    CW Delay Time Setting
    During semi-break-in (not QSK) operation, the hang time of the transmitter, after you have finished sending, may be adjusted to a comfortable value consistent with your sending speed. This is the functional equivalent of the “VOX Delay”
    adjustment used on voice modes, and the delay may be varied anywhere between 30 msec and 3 seconds via Menu item
    “057 CW BK-IN DELAY”.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    list, then touch [BK-IN] on the LCD to enable CW
    transmission (Menu item “056 CW BK-IN TYPE”
    must be set to “SEMI”).

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    2. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “057
    CW BK-IN DELAY”, then touch [SELECT] on the
    LCD.

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    4. Start sending and rotate the MULTI knob to adjust
    the hang time, as you prefer for comfortable operation.
    5. When the adjustments are complete, touch [ENTER]
    on the LCD to save the new setting.

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    6. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    CW Pitch Adjustment
    The center frequency of the receiver passband may be adjusted to the CW tone you prefer. By touching [PITCH] on the
    LCD, the pitch of the CW offset carrier may be varied between 300 Hz and 1050 Hz, in 10 Hz steps.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    list, then touch [PITCH] on the LCD. The MULTI
    knob functions as the PITCH adjustment knob.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to adjust the PITCH (300
    Hz to 1,050 Hz).

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Terminology:
    CW Pitch: If the receiver is tuned to an exact “zero
    beat” on an incoming CW signal, you could not copy
    it (“Zero beat” implies a 0 Hz tone). Therefore, the receiver is offset several hundreds of Hz (typically), to
    produce a beat tone that can be heard. The BFO offset
    associated with this tuning (that produces the comfortable audio tone) is called the CW Pitch.

    Page 83



  • Page 86

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    The CW message capability of the FT-991 may be utilized from the optional FH-2 Remote Control Keypad, which
    plugs into the rear panel REM/ALC jack.

    Message Memory

    Five memory channels capable of retaining 50 characters each are provided (using the PARIS standard for characters
    and word length).
    Example: CQ CQ CQ DE W6DXC K (19 characters)

    -- • -- • ---- • -- -- • -- • ---- • -- -- • -- • ---- • -- -- •• • • ---(C) (Q)
    (C) (Q)
    (C) (Q) (D) (E) (W)

    Storing a Message into Memory
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the CW Memory
    Register into which you wish to store the message;
    for now, we are just setting the message entry technique to (Keyer entry).
    018 CW MEMORY 1
    019 CW MEMORY 2
    020 CW MEMORY 3
    021 CW MEMORY 4
    022 CW MEMORY 5
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set the selected CW Memory Register to “MESSAGE”. If you want to use your keyer
    paddle for message entry on all memories, set all five
    Menu items (#018 - 022) to “MESSAGE”.

    Page 84

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  • Page 87

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    Contest Number Programming
    Use this process if you are starting a contest, or if you somehow get out of sync with the proper number in the
    middle of a contest.
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the
    Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “017
    CONTEST NUMBER”. The current contest number appears on the TFT display.
    3. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set the Contest Number to the
    desired value.
    Advice:
    Touch [BACK] on the LCD to cancel the setting.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

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  • Page 88

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    Message Memory Programming (Using your Paddle)
    1. Set the operating mode to CW.
    2. Set [BK-IN] on the LCD to “Off”.
    3. Set [KEYER] on the LCD to “On”.
    4. Touch [MEM] on the LCD or press the [MEM] key
    on the FH-2. A blinking “REC” icon will appear in
    the display.

    5. Touch [CH1] through [CH5] on the LCD or press
    any of the FH-2 keys numbered [1] through [5] to
    begin the memory storage process, and the “REC”
    icon will glow steadily.

    6. Send the desired message using your keyer paddle.
    Advice:
    If you do not start keying within ten seconds, the
    memory storage process will be cancelled.
    7. Touch [MEM] on the LCD or press the [MEM] key
    on the FH-2 once more at the end of your message.
    Up to 50 characters may be stored in each of the five
    memories.

    Note:
    Care must be exercised when sending to ensure that the
    spaces between letters and words are accurately done;
    if the timing is off, the spacing may not come out right
    in the stored message. For ease in setting up the keyer
    memories, we recommend setting Menu item “012
    KEYER TYPE” to “ACS” (Automatic Character Spacing)
    while programming the keyer memories.

    Checking the CW Memory Contents
    1. Be sure that Break-in is still turned “Off” by [BK-IN]
    on the LCD.
    2. Touch [MONI] on the LCD to enable the CW monitor.
    3. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press the FH-2
    [1] - [5] key, whichever memory you just recorded
    in. You will hear the message played in the sidetone
    monitor, but no RF energy will be transmitted.

    On-The-Air CW Message Playback
    1. Touch [BK-IN] on the LCD to enable transmission.
    Either Full- or Semi-break-in will be engaged, depending on the setting of Menu item “056 CW BKIN TYPE”.
    2. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press the FH-2
    [1] - [5] key, depending on which CW Memory Register message you wish to transmit. The programmed
    message will be transmitted on the air.

    Note:
    If you subsequently decide to use the “Text Memory”
    technique for memory storage, please note that a message stored using keyer paddle input will not be transferred over when you select “Text Memory technique”
    on a particular memory register (the Menu Mode Setting
    is set to “TEXT”).

    Page 86

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 89

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    TEXT Memory

    The five channels of CW message memory (up to 50 characters each) may also be programmed using a text-entry technique. This technique is somewhat slower than sending message directly from the keyer paddle, but accuracy of character spacing is ensured. Be sure to enter the character “}” at the end of the text message.
    Example 1: CQ CQ CQ DE W6DXC K} (20 characters)
    The sequential Contest Number (“Count up”) feature is another powerful feature of the CW Memory Keyer.


    Example 2: 599 10 200 # K} (15 characters)

    Text Memory Storage
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the CW Memory
    Register into which you wish to store the message;
    we are now setting the message entry technique to
    (Text entry).
    018 CW MEMORY 1
    019 CW MEMORY 2
    020 CW MEMORY 3
    021 CW MEMORY 4
    022 CW MEMORY 5
    Advice:
    The following texts are programmed to the MEMORY 4 and MEMORY 5 in factory default.
    MEMORY 4: DE FT-991 K}
    MEMORY 5: R 5NN K}
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set the selected CW Memory Register to “TEXT”. If you want to use text message entry
    on all memories, set all five Menu items (#018 - 022)
    to “TEXT”.
    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.
    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

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    Page 87



  • Page 90

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    Text Message Programming
    1. Press the MODE button to set the operating mode to
    CW.
    2. Be sure that Break-in is “Off” with [BK-IN] on the
    LCD, if necessary.
    3. Touch [MEM] on the LCD or press the FH-2 [MEM]
    key. A blinking “REC” icon will appear in the display.

    4. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press an FH-2
    [1] - [5] key to select the desired CW Memory Register into which you wish to program the text. The
    text input screen will appear.

    Advice:
    Use the FH-2 [] and [] keys to set the cursor position and use the FH-2’s [ ] and [ ] keys to choose
    the letter/number to be programmed in each slot of the
    memory. In the case of the second example on the previous page the “#” character designates the slot where the
    Contest Number will appear.

    8. When the message is complete, add the “}” character
    at the end to signify the termination of the message.
    9. Touch [MEM] on the LCD or press and hold in the
    FH-2 [MEM] key for one second to exit, once all
    characters (including “}”) have been programmed.
    Checking the CW Memory Contents
    1. Be sure that Break-in is still turned “Off” with [BKIN] on the LCD.
    2. Touch [MONI] on the LCD to enable the CW monitor.
    3. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press an FH-2
    [1] - [5] key, whichever memory you just recorded
    in. You will hear the results in the sidetone, but no
    RF energy will be transmitted.

    5. Touch a key on the LCD to enter the letters, numbers, or symbols of the desired label.
    6. Repeat step 5 to program the remaining letters, numbers, or symbols of the desired text. 12 characters
    may be used in the creation of a text.
    Use [] and [] on the LCD to set the cursor position and [ ] on the LCD to erase a letter at the left
    of the cursor.
    7. When you have completed the creation of the text,
    touch [ENT] on the LCD.

    Page 88

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 91

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    Inputting the CW TEXT directly on the screen
    Without using the remote control keypad FH-2, you can also input the CW TEXT directly on the screen.
    1. Press and hold the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Touch [CW TEXT] on the LCD. The CW text
    display screen will appear.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the CW TEXT
    you want to input, then touch [EDIT]. The text
    input screen will appear.

    5. Repeat step 4 to program the remaining letters,
    numbers, or symbols of the desired text. 12 characters may be used in the creation of a text.
    Use [] and [] on the LCD to set the cursor
    position and [ ] on the LCD to erase a letter at
    the left of the cursor.
    6. When you have completed the creation of the
    text, touch [ENT] on the LCD.

    EJ _
    EJ _
    EJ _

    4. Touch a key on the LCD to enter the letters, numbers, or symbols of the desired text.
    7. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to save the
    new setting and return to normal operation.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 89



  • Page 92

    CW Convenience Features
    Contest Memory Keyer
    On-The-Air CW Message Playback
    1. Touch [BK-IN] on the LCD to enable transmission.
    Either Full-break-in or Semi-break-in will be engaged, depending on the setting of Menu item “056
    CW BK-IN TYPE”.
    2. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press an FH-2
    [ 1 ] - [ 5 ] key, depending on which CW Memory
    Register message you wish to transmit. The programmed message will be transmitted on the air.

    Decrementing the Contest Number
    Use this process if the current contest number
    gets slightly ahead of the actual number you
    want to send (in case of a duplicate QSO, for example).
    Press the FH-2 [DEC] key or touch [DEC/DEL]
    on the LCD momentarily. The current Contest
    Number will be reduced by one. Press of the
    FH-2 [DEC] key or touch [DEC/DEL] on the
    LCD as many times as necessary to reach the desired number. If you go too far, use the “Contest
    Number Programming” technique described previously.

    Transmitting in the Beacon Mode

    Note:
    If you subsequently decide to use the “Message Memory” technique for memory storage, please note that the
    contents of a message stored using text input will not be
    transferred over when you set entry to “Message Memory technique” on a particular memory register (the Menu
    Mode Setting is set to “MESSAGE”).

    Page 90

    In “Beacon” mode, it is possible to repeatedly
    transmit any message programmed, either via
    paddle input, or via the “Text” input method. The
    time delay between message repeats may be set
    anywhere between 1 and 690 seconds (1 - 240
    sec (1 sec/step) or 270 - 690 sec (30 sec/step))
    via Menu item “015 BEACON INTERVAL” If you
    do not wish the message to repeat in a “Beacon”
    mode, please set this Menu item to “OFF”.
    To transmit the message:
    1. Touch [BK-IN] on the LCD to enable transmission. Either Full-break-in or Semi-breakin will be engaged, depending on the setting
    of Menu item “056 CW BK-IN TYPE”.
    2. Touch [CH1] - [CH5] on the LCD or press an
    FH-2 [1] - [5] key. Repetitive transmission of
    the Beacon message will begin.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 93

    FM Mode Operation
    Basic Operation
    1. Press the MODE button, then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the FM operating
    mode. The “FM” icon appears in the display.

    MODE Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    2. Set the transceiver to the desired frequency.
    3. Press the microphone PTT switch to transmit. Speak
    into the microphone in a normal voice level. Release
    the PTT switch to return to receive.
    Advice:
    The MULTI knob can serve as the frequency setting
    knob.
    To change the MULTI knob frequency step, follow
    the below procedure:
    Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [CH DIAL]
    on the TFT display. Rotate the MULTI knob or touch
    [CH DIAL] repeatedly to select the frequency steps
    in the following order.
    You can also switch the frequency steps by touching
    [CH DIAL] repeatedly.
    “2.5kHz”  “5kHz”  “9kHz”  “10kHz”
     “12.5kHz”  “25kHz”  “2.5kHz”
    4. Adjustment of the microphone gain may be accomplished in two ways. At the factory, a default
    level has been programmed that should be satisfactory for most situations. To change the microphone
    gain, press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MIC
    GAIN] on the LCD. Rotate the MULTI knob function as the microphone gain adjustment knob. Rotate
    the MULTI knob to adjust the microphone gain.


    Advice:
     FM is only used in the 28 MHz, 50 MHz, 144 MHz
    and 430 MHz Amateur bands covered by the FT991. Please do not use FM on any other bands.

    MIC GAIN (Microphone Gain) indicator
    MIC GAIN (Microphone Gain) level indicator

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 91



  • Page 94

    FM Mode Operation
    Repeater Operation
    The FT-991 may be utilized on 29 MHz, 50 MHz, 144 MHz and 430 MHz repeaters.
    1. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob to set the FT-991
    to the desired repeater’s output frequency (downlink
    from the repeater).
    2. If CTCSS Tone operation is desired/needed, press
    the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [TONE/DCS] on
    the LCD to engage the CTCSS mode.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    3. Touch [ TONE/DCS ] on the LCD repeatedly to
    select the desired CTCSS mode. If the repeater requires an uplink encoding tone, select “ENC.” For
    both uplink and downlink encode/decode operation,
    choose “CTCSS”. The available choices are:
    “OFF”  “ENC (Tone Encoder)”
     “CTCSS (Tone Squelch)”
     “DCS (Digital Code Squelch)”  “OFF”
    4. Touch [RPT] repeatedly on the LCD to select the
    desired repeater shift direction. The selections are:
    “SIMP”  “+”  “–”  “SIMP”
    where “SIMP” represents “Simplex” operation (not
    used on a repeater).

    5. Touch [FWD] to switch the display screen, and then
    touch [TONE ]. Rotate the MULTI knob to select
    the desired CTCSS Tone to be used. A total of 50
    standard CTCSS tones are provided (see the CTCSS
    Tone Chart).

    Page 92

    CTCSS Tone Frequency (Hz)

    67.0 69.3 71.9 74.4 77.0 79.7 82.5 85.4
    88.5 91.5 94.8 97.4 100.0 103.5 107.2 110.9
    114.8 118.8 123.0 127.3 131.8 136.5 141.3 146.2
    151.4 156.7 159.8 162.2 165.5 167.9 171.3 173.8
    177.3 179.9 183.5 186.2 189.9 192.8 196.6 199.5
    203.5 206.5 210.7 218.1 225.7 229.1 233.6 241.8
    250.3 254.1 - - - - - -

    6. Press and hold the microphone PTT switch to begin
    transmission. You will observe that the frequency
    has shifted to correspond to the programming set up
    in the previous steps. Speak into the microphone in a
    normal voice level. Release the PTT switch to return
    to the receive mode.
    Advice:
     The conventional repeater shift used on 29 MHz is
    100 kHz, while on the 50 MHz band the shift may
    vary between 500 kHz and 1.7 MHz (or more). On
    the 144 MHz band, the shift will be 600 kHz; on
    the 430 MHz band, the shift will be 1.6 MHz or 7.6
    MHz (5 MHz for the U.S.A. version). To program
    the proper repeater shift, use Menu items “080
    RPT SHIFT 28MHz” (28 MHz), “081 RPT SHIFT
    50MHz” (50 MHz), “082 RPT SHIFT 144MHz”
    (144 MHz), and “083 RPT SHIFT 430MHz” (430
    MHz) as appropriate.
     Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [REV] on
    the LCD to reverse the transmission and reception
    frequencies temporarily to check whether direct
    communication with the partner station is possible.
    When reversing the frequencies, + or − will flash.
    When [REV] is touched one more time, the reverse
    is cancelled.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 95

    FM Mode Operation
    Repeater Operation
    Automatic Repeater Shift (ARS)

    The FT-991 ARS feature causes the appropriate repeater shift to be automatically applied whenever it is tuned into the
    designated repeater sub-bands.
    If the ARS feature does not appear to be working, you may have accidentally disabled it.
    To re-enable ARS:
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. To use the ARS function at 144 MHz, select “084
    ARS 144MHz”. To use the ARS function at 430
    MHz, select “085 ARS 430MHz” by rotating the
    MULTI knob.
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “ON”.

    

  • Page 96

    FM Mode Operation
    Tone Squelch Operation
    The “Tone Squelch” may be activated to keep the receiver silent until an incoming signal modulated with a matching
    CTCSS tone is received. The receiver squelch will then open in response to the reception of the required tone.
    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the FM operating
    mode. The “FM” icon appears in the display.
    2. Set the transceiver to the desired frequency.
    3. If CTCSS Tone operation is desired/needed, press
    the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [TONE/DCS] on
    the LCD to engage the CTCSS mode.

    4. Touch [ TONE/DCS ] on the LCD repeatedly to
    choose “CTCSS” from the available choices of
    “OFF”  “ENC (Tone Encoder)”
     “CTCSS (Tone Squelch)”
     “DCS (Digital Code Squelch)”  “OFF”

    5. Touch [FWD] to switch the screen, and then touch
    [TONE]. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the desired CTCSS Tone to be used. A total of 50 standard
    CTCSS tones are provided (see the CTCSS Tone
    Chart).

    CTCSS Tone Frequency (Hz)

    67.0 69.3 71.9 74.4 77.0 79.7 82.5 85.4
    88.5 91.5 94.8 97.4 100.0 103.5 107.2 110.9
    114.8 118.8 123.0 127.3 131.8 136.5 141.3 146.2
    151.4 156.7 159.8 162.2 165.5 167.9 171.3 173.8
    177.3 179.9 183.5 186.2 189.9 192.8 196.6 199.5
    203.5 206.5 210.7 218.1 225.7 229.1 233.6 241.8
    250.3 254.1 - - - - - -

    DCS Operation
    The “DCS” may be activated to keep the receiver silent until an incoming signal modulated with a matching DCS code
    is received. The receiver squelch will then open in response to the reception of the required code.
    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the FM operating
    mode. The “FM” icon appears in the display.
    2. Set the transceiver to the desired frequency.
    3. If DCS operation is desired/needed, press the F(MLIST) button, then touch [TONE/DCS] on the LCD
    to engage the DCS mode.

    4. Touch [ TONE/DCS ] on the LCD repeatedly to
    choose “DCS” from the available choices of
    “OFF”  “ENC (Tone Encoder)”
     “CTCSS (Tone Squelch)”
     “DCS (Digital Code Squelch)”  “OFF”

    Page 94

    5. Touch [FWD] to switch the screen, and then touch
    [DCS]. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the desired
    DCS code to be used. A total of 104 DCS codes are
    provided (see the DCS Code Chart).


    DCS CODE

    023 025 026 031 032 036 043 047

    051 053 054 065 071 072 073 074

    114 115 116 122 125 131 132 134

    143 145 152 155 156 162 165 172

    174 205 212 223 225 226 243 244

    245 246 251 252 255 261 263 265

    266 271 274 306 311 315 325 331

    332 343 346 351 356 364 365 371

    411 412 413 423 431 432 445 446

    452 454 455 462 464 465 466 503

    506 516 523 526 532 546 565 606

    612 624 627 631 632 654 662 664

    703 712 723 731 732 734 743 754

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 97

    C4FM Mode (Digital Mode) Operation
    The FT-991 transceiver is capable of using 2, C4FM digital modes: the “V/D mode” which communicates voice and
    data simultaneously, and the “Voice FR mode” which transmits digital voice data using the full 12.5 kHz bandwidth.
    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the C4FM operating mode. The “C4FM” icon appears in the display.

    MODE Button

    2. Set the transceiver to the desired operating frequency.
    Advice:
    The VFO-A frequency can be changed by rotating
    the Main Tuning Dial knob or using one of the following methods. For details, see page 42.
     Setting the frequency directly using the number
    keys.
    Setting
    the frequency by rotating the MULTI

    knob.
     Setting the frequency using the UP/DWN buttons
    on the microphone.
    3. Press and hold the PTT button on the microphone (or
    touch the [MOX] on the LCD) to change the transceiver to transmit mode, then speak into the microphone.
    Release the PTT button (or touch the [ MOX ] again
    if you pressed [MOX] to enter the transmit mode) to
    change the transceiver back to the receive mode.
    Advice:
     Digital communication mode can be switched between V/D mode and FR mode (see “Toggling to the
    Digital Communication Mode” on page 39).
     The AMS (Automatic Mode Select) function enables
    the transceiver to select the appropriate communication mode according to the received signal. Using
    the AMS function, the transceiver recognizes either
    analog (FM) or C4FM digital signals and automatically changes to the same communication mode as
    the contact station.
    Note:
     When communicating in V/D mode (“DN” is displayed on the LCD), the station location information
    is contained within the transmitted digital signal. In
    Voice FR mode (“VW” is displayed on the LCD), the
    location information is not included in the transmitted signals.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 95



  • Page 98

    C4FM Mode (Digital Mode) Operation
    Notification When the Contact Station Completes a Transmission (Standby Beep Function)
    When communicating in C4FM mode, an audible beep sounds to indicate that the contact station has completed a
    transmission (Standby Beep function).
    To change the Standby Beep function “ON/OFF”, follow the procedure below.
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the
    Menu mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “093
    STANDBY BEEP”.
    3. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “ON” or
    “OFF” (the default setting is “ON”).

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

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    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

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    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch
    [BACK] on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    Page 96

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 99

    Memory Operation
    Convenient Memory functions
    The FT-991 contains ninety-nine regular memories, labeled “01” through “99”, nine special programmed band edge
    memory pairs, labeled “P-1L/P-1U” through “P-9L/P-9U”, and five QMB (Quick Memory Bank) memories. Each memory stores various settings, in addition to the VFO-A frequency and mode, but also stores the various settings shown below. By default, the 99 regular memories are contained in one group; however, they can be arranged in up to six separate
    groups, if desired.
    Quick Point:
    The FT-991 memory channels store the following
    data (not just the operating frequency):
     VFO-A Frequency
     VFO-A Mode
     Clarifier status and its Offset Frequency
     IPO status
     Attenuator status
     Noise Blanker status
     IF SHIFT and WIDTH status
     CONTOUR status and its Peak Frequency
     DSP Noise Reduction (DNR) status and its
    Reduction algorithm selection.
     DSP Notch filter (NOTCH) status
     NAR bandwidth status
     DSP Auto Notch filter (DNF) status
     Repeater Shift Direction
     CTCSS Tone information (CTCSS Encode,
    Decode ON/OFF; Tone Frequency)
     DCS information (DCS On/Off, DCS Code)

    PMS Memory Channels

    Regular Memory Channels

    99
    98
    97

    03
    02
    01

    P-9L/9U
    P-8L/8U
    P-7L/7U
    P-6L/6U
    P-5L/5U
    P-4L/4U
    P-3L/3U
    P-2L/2U
    P-1L/1U

    QMB Memory Bank

    QMB (Quick Memory Bank)
    The Quick Memory Bank consists of five memories independent from the regular and PMS memories. The QMB memories can quickly store operating parameters for later recall.

    QMB Channel Storage

    1. Tune to the desired frequency on VFO-A.
    2. Press and hold the RCL/STO button for one second.
    The “beep” will confirm that the VFO-A contents
    have been written to the currently available QMB
    memory.
    Repeated one second presses of the RCL/STO button will write the VFO-A contents to successive QMB
    memories.
    Once all five QMB memories have data on them, previous data will be over-written on a first-in, first-out basis.

    RCL/STO Button

    V/M Button

    QMB Channel Recall

    1. Press the RCL/STO button briefly. The current
    QMB channel data will be shown on the frequency
    display area. The “QMB” icon will also appear and
    the Memory Mode indicators in the LED indicators
    area will illuminate.
    2. Repeated brief presses of the RCL/STO button will
    toggle through the QMB channels.
    3. Press the V/M button to return to the VFO or Memory mode.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Advice:
    Rotating the Main Tuning Dial knob, or changing the
    operating mode, will place the transceiver in the “Memory Tune” mode, which is a temporary “pseudo-VFO”
    method of tuning off of a stored memory channel. If you
    do not over-write the contents of the current memory
    channel, the original contents will not be disturbed by
    the initiation of Memory Tune operation.

    Page 97



  • Page 100

    Memory Operation
    Standard Memory Operation
    The Standard Memory of the FT-991 allows storage and recall of up to 99 memories, each storing frequency, mode,
    and a wide variety of status information, detailed previously. Memories may be grouped into as many as six Memory
    Groups. Additionally there are nine pairs of band-limit (PMS) memories along with five QMB (Quick Memory Bank)
    memories.

    Memory Storage

    1. Set VFO-A up with the frequency, mode, and status,
    the way you want to have it stored.
    2. Press the A  M button momentarily; the current
    channel number will appear in the display and the
    “MCK” notation will appear.

    MULTI Knob

     

    AM Button

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    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the memory channel that you wish to store the data on.
    4. Press and hold in the AM button for one second to
    store the frequency and other data into the selected
    memory channel. A double beep will sound to confirm that the operation is completed.

    Memory Channel Recall

    1. Press the V/M button, if necessary, to enter the
    “Memory mode”.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MCH] on
    the LCD. A memory channel number and the “MCH”
    notation will appear in the display.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    3. Touch [ MCH ] on the LCD, and then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select the desired memory channel.

    Page 98

    V/M Button

    Advice:
    To work within a particular Memory Group, press the
    F(M-LIST) button, then touch [ GRP ] on the LCD.
    Rotate the MULTI knob to select the desired Memory
    Group, then touch [ MCH ] on the LCD (the “MCH”
    notation will appear instead of the “GRP”); Now the
    memory channel may be chosen from within the selected Memory Group.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 101

    Memory Operation
    Standard Memory Operation
    Recalling the Home Channel

    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [HOME]
    on the LCD. The home channel frequency will be
    shown in the display.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    Advice:
    Change the frequency using Main Tuning Dial knob
    to return to the VFO mode.
    Touch [HOME] again to return to the VFO mode and
    display the frequency that was selected before the home
    channel was recalled.

    Advice:
    In the default setting, the Home channel frequencies of
    each band are set as follows.
    HF band: 2,960000 MHz
    50 MHz band: 52,52500 MHz
    144 MHz band: 146,52000 MHz
    430 MHz band: 446,00000 MHz

    Changing the Frequency of the Home Channel

    The default frequency setting of the home channel when shipped from the factory can be changed.
    1. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [HOME]
    on the LCD. The home channel will be shown in the
    display.

    BAND Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    3. Set the desired frequency, then touch [ENT] on the
    LCD to exit to normal operation.
    2. Press the BAND button, then touch [ENT].



    FT-991 Operating Manual

    When the writing to the home channel is completed,
    the updated home channel frequency will be displayed.

    Page 99



  • Page 102

    Memory Operation
    Standard Memory Operation
    Labeling Memories

    An Alphanumeric “Tag” (label) may be appended to a memory or memories, to aid in recollection of the channel’s use
    (such as a club name, etc.). To do this:
    1. Press and hold in the F(M-LIST) button.
    The data stored in the currently selected memory
    channel will be displayed on the TFT.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to recall the memory channel that you wish to append a label.
    3. Touch [TAG] on the LCD.
    A cursor will appear on the first digit.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

     

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    4. Touch a key on the LCD to enter the letters, numbers, or symbols of the desired label.
    5. Repeat step 5 to program the remaining letters, numbers, or symbols of the desired label. 12 characters
    may be used in the creation of a label.
    Use [] and [] on the LCD to set the cursor position and [ ] on the LCD to erase a letter at the left
    of the cursor.
    6. When you have completed the creation of the label,
    touch [ENT] on the LCD.

    7. Press the F(M-LIST) button to save the new setting
    and return to normal operation.

    Page 100

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 103

    Memory Operation
    Standard Memory Operation
    Checking a Memory Channel Status

    Before programming a channel into memory, you can check the current contents of that channel without the danger of
    over-writing the channel accidentally.
    1. Press the AM button momentarily.
    The data stored in the currently selected memory
    channel will be displayed on the TFT. However,
    since you are only checking the contents of the
    memory channel, the radio will not have moved to
    the memory channel frequency.
    MULTI Knob

     
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    AM Button

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    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select a different memory
    channel. To exit from the Memory Check mode,
    press the AM button momentarily once more.
    Advice:
     While operating in the VFO mode, using Memory
    Check, you may store the current VFO frequency
    into the selected memory by pressing and holding
    in the AM button for one second (until the double
    beep).

    Erasing Memory Channel Data

    1. Press and hold in the F(M-LIST) button.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the memory channel that you would like to erase.
    3. Touch [ERASE] on the LCD.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob
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    Advice:
     The FT-991 cannot erase memory channel “01” (and
    channels “5-01” through “5-10”: U.S. version).
     If you make a mistake and wish to restore the memory contents, just repeat steps (1) through (3) above.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 101



  • Page 104

    Memory Operation
    Standard Memory Operation
    Memory Tune Operation

    The frequency may be freely tuned off from any memory channel in “Memory Tune” mode; this is similar to VFO operation. So long as you do not over-write the contents of the current memory, Memory Tune operation will not alter the
    contents of the memory channel.
    1. Press the V/M button to recall any memory channel.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MCH] on
    the LCD.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the memory channel.
    4. Rotate the Main Tuning Dial knob; you will now observe that the memory channel frequency is changing.
    Advice:
     During Memory Tune operation, you may change
    operating modes, and engage the offset Clarifier,
    if desired.
    5. Press the V/M button momentarily to return to the
    originally memorized frequency of the current memory channel. One more press of the V/M button will
    return to VFO operation.

    Page 102

    V/M Button

    Note:
    Computer software programs utilizing the CAT system
    interface port may presume that the transceiver is operating in the VFO mode, for certain features like “band
    mapping” and/or frequency logging, because the “Memory Tune” mode so closely resembles the VFO mode.
    Be sure that you have the FT-991 operating in a control
    mode compatible with the software’s requirements. Use
    the VFO mode if you’re not sure.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 105

    Memory Operation
    Standard Memory Operation
    Split Memory

    Separate frequencies for transmit and receive can be registered for each memory channel.
    1. Set VFO-A up with the frequency, mode, and status
    (see “Convenient Memory Functions” on page 97),
    the way you want to have it stored.
    2. Press the A  M button momentarily; the current
    channel number will appear in the display and the
    “MCK” notation will appear.
    MULTI Knob

    EJ

    AM Button

     .5$

      E J        
      E J      

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the memory channel that you wish to store the data on.
    4. Press and hold in the AM button for one second
    to store the receive frequency and other data into the
    selected memory channel. A double beep will confirm that the AM button was held in long enough
    and the data is registered.
    5. Enter the transmit frequency, mode, and status (see
    “Convenient Memory Functions” on page 97), the
    way you want to have it stored.

    6. Press the AM button. Make sure that the memory
    channel storing the receive frequency is selected.

    Advice:
    When a split-frequency memory channel is recalled,
    “DUP” is displayed on the LCD.
    Displays DUP

    EJ

     .5$

      E J       (/
      E J      

    7. To register the transmit frequency, press and hold the
    PTT button on the microphone, and simultaneously
    press and hold the A  M button. A double beep
    will confirm that the AM button was held in long
    enough and the data is registered. When the memory
    writing is completed, the receive frequency will be
    shown in the display.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 103



  • Page 106

    Memory Operation
    Memory Groups
    Memory channels may be arranged into as many as six convenient groups, for easy identification and selection. For example, different memory groups may be designated for AM BC stations, short-wave broadcast stations, contest frequencies, repeater frequencies, PMS limits, or any other groupings you might like.
    Each memory group is capable of holding up to 20 memory channels (except Memory Group 01 is 19 memory channels, and the Group size is fixed).

    Memory Group Assignment

    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “034
    MEM GROUP”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “ENABLE” (the
    default setting is “DISABLE”).

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

       /' / ) 4 1 72

    &+5#$.'

       37+%- 5 2 . +6 (4'3

     M *\

       6: 616

    1( (

    Memory Channel Number
    01 - 19
    20 - 39
    40 - 59
    60 - 79
    80 - 99
    P-1L/1U - P-9L/9U
    5M-01 - 5M-10

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

       / ' / ) 4 1 72

    '0#$.'

       37+%- 5 2 . +6 (4'3

    M * \

       6: 616

    1( (

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or [BACK] on the
    LCD to exit. Operation will now be restricted to the
    six Memory Groups.
    To cancel Memory Group operation, repeat steps (1)
    through (4) above, choosing “DISABLE” in step (3).
    Advice:
    To avoid confusion, note that the PMS memory group
    and the PMS memories “P-1L” through “P-9U” will be
    so designated.

    Page 104

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 107

    Memory Operation
    Memory Groups
    Choosing the Desired Memory Group

    If desired, memories just within a particular Memory Group may be recalled.
    1. Press the V/M button, if necessary, to enter the
    “Memory” mode.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [GRP] on
    the LCD. The “GRP” icon will appear on the display.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    V/M Button

    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the desired Memory Group.
    4. Touch [MCH] on the LCD. The “MCH” icon will
    appear on the display.

    5. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the desired Memory Channel within the Selected Memory Group.
    Advice:
    If no channels have been assigned to a particular Memory Group, that Group cannot be accessed.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 105



  • Page 108

    Operation on Alaska Emergency Frequency: 5167.5 kh (U.S. Version Only)
    z

    Section 97.401(d) of the regulations governing amateur radio in the United States permit emergency amateur communications on the spot frequency of 5167.5 kHz by stations in (or within 92.6 km of) the state of Alaska. This frequency
    is only to be used when the immediate safety of human life and/or property are threatened, and is never to be used for
    routine communications.
    The FT-991 includes the capability for transmission and reception on 5167.5 kHz under such emergency conditions via
    the Menu system. To activate this feature:
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “151
    EMERGENCY FREQ TX”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select “ENABLE.”

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

       #0 6 + & 81:
    : )# + 0

    

       '/'
    ' 4)' 0 % ; (4'3 6:

    &+5#$.'

       # ) % ( #5
    5 6 &' . # ;

     OU G E

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

       #0 6 + & 81:
    : )# + 0

    

       '/' 4)' 0 % ; (4'3 6:

    '0#$.'

       # ) % ( #5
    5 6 &' . # ;

     OU G E

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or [BACK] on the
    LCD to exit to normal operation. Emergency communication on this spot frequency is now possible.
    6. Press the V/M button, as necessary, to enter the
    Memory mode.
    7. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MCH] on
    the LCD.

    Page 106

    V/M Button

    8. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the emergency
    channel (“EMG”), which is found between channels
    “5-10” and “01ch”).
    Note:
     The receive-mode CLARIFIER functions normally
    while using this frequency, but variation of the transmit frequency is not possible. The full specifications
    of the FT-991 are not necessarily guaranteed on this
    frequency, but power output and receiver sensitivity
    should be fully satisfactory for the purpose of emergency communication.
     If you wish to disable operation capability on the
    Alaska Emergency Frequency, repeat the above procedures, but set the Menu item “151 EMERGENCY
    FREQ TX” to “DISABLE” in step 3.
     In an emergency, note that a half-wave dipole cut
    for this frequency should be approximately 45’3” on
    each leg (90’6” total length). Emergency operation
    on 5167.5 kHz is shared with the Alaska-Fixed Service. This transceiver is not authorized for operation,
    under the FCC Part 87, for aeronautical communications.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 109

    VFO and Memory Scanning
    VFO Scanning
    Either the VFO or the memory channels of the FT-991 may be scanned, and the receiver will halt scanning on any frequency with a signal strong enough to open the receiver squelch.
    1. Set the VFO-A to the frequency on which you would
    like to begin scanning.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [SQL] on
    the LCD. Rotate the MULTI knob so that the background noise is just silenced.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    3. Press and hold in the microphone UP or DWN button for one second, or press the F(M-LIST) button
    followed by [SCAN] to start scanning in the specified direction on the VFO frequency.

    4. If the scanner halts on an incoming signal, the decimal point between the “MHz” and “kHz” digits of
    the frequency display will blink.
    Advice:
     If the incoming signal disappears, scanning will
    resume in about five seconds.
    On
    the SSB/CW and SSB-based Data modes, the

    scanner will pause on a received signal, then will
    step across the signal very slowly, giving you
    time to stop the scan, if you like. In these modes
    on the VFO, the scanner does not stop, however.
    5. To cancel scanning, press the PTT switch, or touch
    [SCAN] on the LCD.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Advice:
     If the scan has paused on a signal, pressing the microphone UP or DWN button, or touching [SCAN]
    on the LCD will cause scanning to resume instantly.
     If you press the microphone PTT button during
    scanning, the scanner will halt at once. However,
    pressing the PTT button during scanning will not
    cause transmission.
     The manner in which the scanner resumes after it has
    paused on a signal may be selected by using Menu
    item “038 MIC SCAN RESUME”. The default “TIME”
    (5 sec) setting will cause the scanner to resume scanning after five seconds; however the scan setting
    may be changed to resume only after the received
    signal has dropped out.
     If the Main Tuning Dial knob is rotated while scanning is in progress, the scanning will continue up
    or down in frequency according to the direction of
    the Dial Knob rotation. (in other words, if the dial
    is rotated to the left when scanning toward a higher
    frequency, the direction of the scan will reverse.)
    Quick Point:
    If you have no interest in scanning, and wish to prohibit
    the microphone UP/DWN buttons from initiating scanning, you may disable scanning control from the microphone using Menu item “037 MIC SCAN” (set it to
    “DISABLE”).

    Page 107



  • Page 110

    VFO and Memory Scanning
    Memory Scan
    1. Set the transceiver to the “Memory” mode by pressing the V/M button, if necessary.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [SQL] on
    the LCD. Rotate the MULTI knob so that the background noise is just silenced.

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    3. Press and hold in the microphone UP or DWN button for one second, or press the F(M-LIST) button
    followed by [SCAN] to start scanning in the specified direction.

    Advice:
     If the scanner halts on an incoming signal, the
    decimal point between the “MHz” and “kHz”
    digits of the frequency display will blink.
     If the incoming signal disappears, scanning will
    resume in about five seconds.
    4. To cancel scanning, press the PTT switch, or touch
    [SCAN] on the LCD.

    V/M Button

    Advice:
     During Memory Group operation, only the channels
    within the current Memory Group will be scanned.
     If the scan has paused on a signal, pressing the microphone UP or DWN button, or touching [SCAN]
    on the LCD will cause scanning to resume instantly.
     If you press the microphone PTT button during
    scanning, the scanner will halt at once. However,
    pressing the PTT button during scanning will not
    cause transmission.
     The manner in which the scanner resumes after it has
    paused on a signal may be selected by using Menu
    item “038 MIC SCAN RESUME”. During memory
    scanning, the default “TIME” (5 sec) setting will
    cause the scanner to resume scanning after five seconds; however the scan may be set, to resume only
    after the received signal has dropped out.
     If the Main Tuning Dial knob is rotated while scanning is in progress, the memory channel scanning
    will continue up or down in accordance with the direction of the Dial Knob rotation. (In other words, if
    the dial is rotated to the left when scanning toward a
    higher channel number, the direction of the scan will
    reverse.)
    Quick Point:
    If you have no interest in scanning, and wish to prohibit
    the microphone UP/DWN buttons from initiating scanning, you may disable scanning control from the microphone using Menu item “037 MIC SCAN” (set it to
    “DISABLE”).

    Page 108

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 111

    PMS (Programmable Memory Scanning)
    To limit scanning (and manual tuning) within a particular frequency range, the Programmable Memory Scanning (PMS)
    feature utilizes nine special-purpose memory pairs (“P-1L/P-1U” through “P-9L/P-9U”). The PMS feature is especially
    useful in helping you to observe any operating sub-band limits, which apply to your Amateur license class.
    1. Store the Lower and Upper tuning/scanning limit
    frequencies into the memory pair “P-1L” and “P-1U”,
    respectively, or any other “L/U” pair of memories
    in the special PMS memory area. See page 98 for
    details regarding memory storage.
    2. Press the V/M button to enter the “Memory” mode.
    3. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [MCH] on
    the TFT display. The LEDs indicating the Memory
    mode will illuminate.

    4. Rotate the MULTI knob to select memory channel
    “P-1L” or “P-1U”.
    5. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [SQL] on
    the LCD. Rotate the MULTI knob so that the background noise is just silenced.

    6. Turn the Main Tuning Dial knob slightly (to activate
    memory tuning). Tuning and scanning are now limited to the range within the P-1L/P-1U limits until
    the V/M button is pressed again to return to memory
    channel or VFO operation.
    7. Press and hold in the microphone UP or DWN button for one second, or press the F(M-LIST) button
    followed by [SCAN] to start scanning in the specified direction.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    V/M Button

    Advice:
     If the scanner halts on an incoming signal, the decimal point between the “MHz” and “kHz” digits of
    the frequency display will blink.
     If the incoming signal disappears, scanning will resume in about five seconds.
     On the SSB/CW and SSB-based Data modes, the
    scanner will pause on a received signal, then will
    step across the signal very slowly, giving you time to
    stop the scan, if you like. However, in these modes
    on the VFO, the scanner does not stop.
     If the scan has paused on a signal, pressing the microphone UP or DWN button, or touching [SCAN]
    on the LCD will cause scanning to resume instantly.
     If the Main Tuning Dial knob is rotated while scanning is in progress, the scanning will continue up
    or down in frequency according to the direction of
    the Dial Knob rotation. (in other words, if the dial
    is rotated to the left when scanning toward a higher
    frequency, the direction of the scan will reverse.)
     If the microphone PTT button is pressed during
    scanning, the scanner will halt at once. Pressing the
    PTT button during scanning will not cause transmission.

    Page 109



  • Page 112

    Using the GPS Function
    Connecting a YAESU FT1DR/DE, FTM-400DR/DE or a commercially available GPS receiver/antenna to the FT-991
    will permit the transceiver to constantly receive and display the station location information.
    By utilizing the GPS location information, you can register stations with which you frequently communicate and use the
    GM function to confirm whether they are within communication range.

    What is GPS?

    Positioning Using GPS

    GPS or Global Positioning System is a satellite location
    system that is used to determine the current position on
    earth. It is a military system developed by the US Department of Defense with approximately 30 GPS satellites orbiting the earth at an altitude of about 20,000 km,
    When signals from three or more satellites in space are
    received, the current position information (longitude,
    latitude, altitude etc.) may be determined within an accuracy of several meters. The accurate time can also be
    received from the atomic clock built into the GPS satellite.

    1. Press and hold in the front panel ON/OFF switch to
    turn the transceiver on.
    The satellite search will begin and the “ ” icon will
    be displayed at the top right of the screen.

    Advice:
     It may take several minutes to acquire the satellites.
     When three or more satellites cannot be acquired,
    the icon display will disappear. In this case, positioning is not possible and the position information cannot be used.

    About GPS Positioning
    Positioning refers to the calculation of one’s own position derived from the satellites orbit information and the
    transmission time of the radio waves. Positioning requires that three or more satellites be acquired. When positioning cannot be carried out properly, move to an open space as far away from buildings as possible and where
    there are fewer obstructions.

    About the Error

    Depending on the surrounding environment of the receiver location, an error of several hundred meters may occur. Although positioning is possible using only three satellites, depending on the positioning conditions, the positioning accuracy may become worse, or may no longer be possible under the following conditions:
     Between high rise buildings, narrow roads between buildings, indoors and under the shade of buildings, below high voltage lines and underneath overhead structures, between trees and shrubs such as in forests and
    woods, inside tunnels and underground, when used behind a solar-energy reflecting glass, locations where a
    strong magnetic field occurs

    When not Using the Radio for a Long Period of Time

    When using the GPS function for the first time after purchasing the FT-991 transceiver, and when turning it on
    after It has not been used for a long period time, positioning may take several minutes in order to search for the
    satellites. Also, when using the device again several hours after switching off the power, positioning may take
    several minutes in order to search for the satellites.

    Page 110

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 113

    Using the GPS Function
    Positioning Using GPS
    Positioning Using an External GPS Device

    A YAESU FT1DR/DE, FTM-400DR/DE or a commercially available GPS receiver/antenna may be connected to the
    GPS/CAT jack on the rear panel.
    The GPS/CAT jack connector is illustrated below.
    Connecting to the FT1DR/DE
    GPS/CAT Jack
    FT1DR/DE
    (CT-169 Option)

     
     TXD (Serial data output) (FT1DR/DE  FT-991)
     RXD (Serial data input) (FT1DR/DE  FT-991)
     GND

    Connecting to the FTM-400DR/DE

    GPS/CAT Jack
    FTM-400DR/DE
    (CT-165 Option)

     
     TXD (Serial data output) (FTM-400DR/DE  FT-991)
     RXD (Serial data input)(FTM-400DR/DE  FT-991)
     GND
    GPS/CAT Jack





    FTM-400DR/DE
    (CT-167 Option)

     

     GND (Heavy black line)  TXD (Serial data output)
     TXD (Blue)
    (FTM-400DR/DE  FT-991)
     RXD (Gray)
     RXD (Serial data input)
    (FTM-400DR/DE  FT-991)
     GND

    1. Press the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn the
    transceiver off.
    2. Plug the connector of the external device into the
    GPS/CAT jack on the rear panel.
    3. Press and hold in the front panel ON/OFF switch to
    turn the transceiver on.
    4. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    5. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “028
    GPS/232C SELECT”.
    6. Touch [ SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “GPS1” or
    “GPS2” (the default setting is “GPS1”).
    GPS1: Enables connection to an external GPS device.
    GPS2: Enables connection to an external GPS device, and displays the location information in
    real time.
    7. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.
    8. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.
    When the external device acquires three or more
    satellites, the “ ” icon will be displayed on the top
    right of the screen.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    GPS/CAT Jack
    ON/OFF Switch

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    MULTI Knob

    Advice:
     When connecting to an external GPS device, refer
    to the operating manual of the connected device as
    well.
     When using an external GPS device, separate the
    FT-991 transceiver away from the external GPS device to reduce the possibility of RF interference.

    Page 111



  • Page 114

    Using the GPS Function
    Displaying the Position Information
    Displaying the Current Station Position Information
    When Menu Item “028 GPS/232C SELECT” is set to “GPS1”
    1. Press and hold the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Touch [LAT/LON] on the LCD.
    3. Touch [GPS] on the LCD.



    MENU(SETUP) Button

    The latitude and longitude of this station will be displayed.

    When Menu Item “028 GPS/232C SELECT” is set to “GPS2”
    1. Press and hold the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Touch [LAT/LON] on the LCD.
    The latitude and longitude of this station will be displayed in real-time.

    Entering the Location Information Manually
    1. Press and hold the MENU(SETUP) button.
    2. Touch [LAT/LON] on the LCD.
    3. Touch [LAT] on the LCD.

    5. Touch [LON] on the LCD.

    6. Enter the longitude, then touch [ENT] followed
    by [BACK].
    4. Enter the latitude, then touch [ENT] followed by
    [BACK].

    7. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to exit to normal operation.
    Advice:
    The manually registered location information can be
    erased by touching and holding [LAT] / [LON] on
    the LCD for one second.

    Page 112

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 115

    Using the GM Function
    What is the GM Function?
    The GM (group monitor) function automatically inquires to find if there are any stations with the GM function in operation on the same frequency within communication range.
    The FT-991 can then display the position and distance and other information for each group member call sign on the
    screen.
    Besides letting you know who is within your sphere of communications, the GM function is also a convenient method
    to instantly note the relative positions of all the members in the group.
    Advice:
    The GM function does not work in the analog FM mode.

    )417
    72
    2 ᳂
    , *  ; %2 

    ,#

    ,*

    ,(

    ,4

    ,-

    , ,
    ,,
    ,,

    Basic Methods to Use the GM Function
    There are two ways to use the GM function:
    (1) Display all stations operating the GM function that are within communications range (maximum of 24 stations can
    be displayed)
    (2) Register the ID of partners into a memory group and then display only the Group Member partners
    An explanation of the two methods of starting the GM operation is given on the following pages.
    Refer to the separate Operating Manual GM Edition for additional details on using the GM Functions (download the
    manual from our YAESU website).

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 113



  • Page 116

    Using the GM Function
    Basic Methods to Use the GM Function
    Displaying all the Stations where the GM Function is in Operation
    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the C4FM operating mode. The “C4FM” icon appears in the display.
    2. Set the desired operating frequency.
    3. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [GM] on the
    LCD.

    MODE Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    4. Touch [BACK] on the LCD. The GM function will
    be turned off and the display will return to the previous screen.



    Up to 24 stations operating with the GM function
    within the sphere of communications will be listed
    on the TFT display.
    Advice:
     Stations within the sphere of communications are
    displayed in blue.
     Stations outside the sphere of communications
    are displayed in grey.

    Displaying only Partners Registered in the GM Group

    When a group that has been created beforehand is selected from the group list and the screen is touched, the status of the
    members registered in that group will be displayed.
    A total of up to 5 groups can be created. Names such as “FRIENDS”, “CAMP” etc. can be assigned to the groups. Up to
    24 stations can be registered as members in each group.
    1. Press the MODE button, then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the C4FM operating
    mode. The “C4FM” icon appears in the display.
    2. Set the desired operating frequency.
    3. Press the F(M-LIST) button, then touch [GM] on the
    TFT display.

    MODE Button

    F(M-LIST) Button

    MULTI Knob

    Page 114

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 117

    Using the GM / WIRES-X Function
    Basic Methods to Use the GM Function
    4. Touch [ GROUP] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob, or touch the screen to select a group.

    6. Touch [GROUP] on the LCD. The display will return to the group list.

    5. Touch the screen to select the group.

    Advice:
    Touch [BACK] on the LCD. The GM function will
    be turned off and the display will return to the previous screen.

    #..

    7. Touch [BACK] twice on the LCD. The GM function
    will be turned off and the display will return to the
    previous screen.

    1 ( 4 + ' 0& 5
    1 %#/2
    1 )4172 
    0'9 ) 4 1 7 2  



    Up to 24 group members with the GM function in
    operation at the same frequency will be displayed.

    What is the WIRES-X Function?
    The WIRES-X is a system that connects to other users via the Internet. This function enables users to communicate with
    other users regardless of the distance.
    For details, refer to the separate WIRES-X Instruction Manual which is available on the Yaesu website.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 115



  • Page 118

    RTTY (Radio Teletype) Operation
    Example of Connecting RTTY Communications Device
    Connecting to the TU (Terminal Unit)
    Connect the RTTY communications TU (Terminal Unit) to the rear panel RTTY/DATA terminal. Be sure to read the instruction manual of the TU device before connecting it.
    Advice:
    Adjust the RTTY data output level using Menu item
    “101 RTTY OUT LEVEL”.

    TU

    GND

    SHIFT

    RTYO

    DAKY

    RTTY/DATA JACK
    DATA IN (Pin 1)
    GND (Pin 2)
    DAKY (Pin 3)
    SHIFT (Pin 4)
    RTYO (Pin 5)
    BUSY (Pin 6)

    To USB port
    Commercially available
    USB cable

    Page 116

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 119

    RTTY (Radio Teletype) Operation
    Example of Connecting RTTY Communications Device
    Connecting to your Computer

    Note:
    Install the RTTY application software and driver on
    your computer in advance.
     RTTY communication application (YAESU does not
    provide technical support for the use or operation of
    the application.)
     Virtual COM port driver (Visit the Yaesu website
    http://www.yaesu.com/ to download the designated
    driver and Installation Manual.)
    1. Use a commercially available USB cable to connect
    the USB jack on the rear panel of the FT-991 and
    the computer.
    2. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the RTTY-LSB
    operating mode. The “R-L” icon appears in the display.

    3. Press the MENU(SETUP) button. The Menu list
    will appear in the display. Rotate the MULTI knob
    to select Menu item “060 PC KEYING”. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD, then rotate the MULTI knob
    to set this Menu item to “RTS” or “DTR”. Press the
    MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK] on the
    LCD to exit to normal operation.

      %9 (4 ' 3 &+ 5 2.#;



    2+6%* 1((5'

       2% -'; + 0 )

    1((

       3 5- &' . # ; 6+/'

     OUGE

    “RTS” and “DTR” will be set as shown below.
    Menu item
    “060 PC KEYING”

    RTS
    DTR

    RTTY-PTT
    RTS
    DTR

    RTTY-SHIFT
    DTR
    RTS



    RTTY-PTT and RTTY-SHIFT operations can be set
    from the Standard-COM port of the virtual COM
    port.
    On the computer, open Device Manager from the
    Control Panel to check the COM port number and
    set each item of the RTTY communication application.
    4. From the computer Control Panel, open the Sound
    setting window to set “USB Audio CODEC” as the
    recording device.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 117



  • Page 120

    DATA (PSK) Operation
    Example of Data Communications Device
    Use commercial or free computer software for PSK data communications. See the illustration below for connecting the
    FT-991 transceiver to a computer.
    Be sure to read the instruction manual of the interface device to be connected to the radio and computer.

    To LINE IN/MIC IN,
    LINE OUT/MIC OUT,
    COM port, etc.

    DAKY

    RTYO

    RTTY/DATA JACK

    DATA IN (Pin 1)
    GND (Pin 2)
    DAKY (Pin 3)
    SHIFT (Pin 4)
    RTYO (Pin 5)
    BUSY (Pin 6)

    Interface device commercially available

    To USB port
    Commercially available
    USB cable

    Advice:
    The FT-991 allows for PSK, Olivia, Contestia, etc. digital mode to be sent by the Data method or SSB. The conventional method is to use USB, except RTTY, however the Data method allows for more accurate carrier frequency control, which is helpful in a Contest or DX environment.

    DATA-AFSK
    (PSK, OLIVIA, CONTESTIA, RTTY etc.)

    FT-991 Settings
    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the USB operating mode. The “USB” icon appears in the display.
    Advice:
    USB is the conventional mode for AFSK transmission on all bands, however some users may be using
    LSB.
    2. Press the F(M-LIST) button to display the function
    list.
    3. Touch [MONI] on the LCD. The Monitor function
    will be set to “ON”. The MULTI knob will function
    as the MONITOR adjustment knob.
    4. Press the MENU(SETUP) button. The Menu list
    will appear in the display.
    5. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “110
    SSB PTT SELECT”. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD,
    then rotate the MULTI knob to set this Menu item to
    “RTS”. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD.
    6. Rotate the MULTI knob to select Menu item “111
    SSB PORT SELECT”. Touch [ SELECT ] on the
    LCD, then rotate the MULTI knob to set this Menu
    item to “USB”. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD. Press

    Page 118

    the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK] on the
    LCD to exit to normal operation.
    Note:
    All other SSB and DATA settings remain at their default.
    Connect a USB Cable from the FT-991 USB port
    and your computer
    Advice:
    Before connecting the USB cable you must down load
    the SCU-17 Drivers. The Drivers can be found on the
    FT-991 FILES page at the Yaesu Web page, www.
    yaesu.com. Once the Drivers have been installed connect the USB cable to the computer and then to the radio. At your computer’s Device Manager you will find
    a Standard Driver and Enhanced Driver installed.
    Computer Settings
    Soundcard
    At your Computer Control Panel Sound set your
    Speaker Audio default to USB AUDIO CODEC.
    COM PORT
    Check your Com Port assignments at your Computer’s
    Device Manager to be sure you have the Enhanced
    and Standard Drivers. Make a note of the Com Port
    numbers assigned.

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 121

    DATA (PSK) Operation
    Example of Data Communications Device
    Software Settings
    Note:
    There are many good Data Mode Operating Software
    programs available on the internet. Each of these programs will have their own Setup instructions, therefore
    to assist you, the following, while general in nature is
    common to most software setup.
    COM PORT Settings
    To start set the Com Port setting to the Enhanced
    Driver. If there is a problem switch to the Standard
    Driver.
    PTT Settings
    Set the PTT to RTS on DTR off.
    SOUNDCARD
    a. At the software Soundcard setting, set to USB CODEC AUDIO
    b. At the software Soundcard Volume setting increase
    the volume to about 70% to start.
    Advice:
    If the soundcard volume setting is to low the radio
    will not switch to Transmit.

    DATA MODE
    (PSK, OLIVIA, CONTESTIA, RTTY etc.)

    FT-991 Settings
    1. Press the MODE button, and then touch the corresponding key on the LCD to select the DATA-USB
    operating mode. The “D-U” icon appears in the display.
    Advice:
    USB is the conventional mode for Digital (not
    RTTY) transmission on all bands, however some users may be using LSB.
    2. Press the MENU(SETUP) button. The Menu list
    will appear in the display.
    3. Rotate the MULTI knob to find Menu item “062”,
    “063”, “070”, “071” or “072”.
    4. Touch [SELECT] on the LCD.
    5. Rotate the MULTI knob to set these Menu item as
    shown below.
    Menu Function
    062 DATA MODE
    063 PSK TONE
    070 DATA IN SELECT
    071 DATA PTT SELECT
    072 DATA PORT SELECT

    Setting
    PSK
    Adjust for desired
    center frequency.
    MIC
    RTS
    USB

    Connect a USB Cable from the FT-991 USB port
    and your computer
    Advice:
    Before connecting the USB cable you must down load
    the SCU-17 Drivers. The Drivers can be found on the
    FT-991 FILES page at the Yaesu Web page, www.
    yaesu.com. Once the Drivers have been installed connect the USB cable to the computer and then to the radio. At your computer’s Device Manager you will find
    a Standard Driver and Enhanced Driver installed.
    Computer Settings
    Soundcard
    At your Computer Control Panel Sound set your
    Speaker Audio default to USB AUDIO CODEC.
    COM PORT
    Check your Com Port assignments at your Computer’s
    Device Manager to be sure you have the Enhanced
    and Standard Drivers. Make a note of the Com Port
    numbers assigned.
    Software Settings
    Note:
    There are many good Data Mode Operating Software
    programs available on the internet. Each of these programs will have their own Setup instructions, therefore
    to assist you, the following, while general in nature is
    common to most software setup.
    COM PORT Settings
    To start set the Com Port setting to the Enhanced
    Driver. If there is a problem switch to the Standard
    Driver.
    PTT Settings
    Set the PTT to RTS on DTR off.
    SOUNDCARD
    a. At the software Soundcard setting, set to USB CODEC AUDIO
    b. At the software Soundcard Volume setting increase
    the volume to about 70% to start.
    Advice:
    If the soundcard volume setting is to low the radio
    will not switch to Transmit.

    6. Touch [ ENTER ] on the LCD, then press the
    MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK] on the
    LCD to exit to normal operation.
    Note:
    All other SSB and DATA settings remain at their default.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 119



  • Page 122

    Menu Mode
    The Menu system of the FT-991 provides extensive customization capability; the transceiver may be setup to complement personal operating preferences. Menu items are grouped by general utilization categories, and are numbered from
    “001 AGC FAST DELAY” to “151 EMERGENCY FREQ TX”.

    Using the Menu

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to engage the
    Menu mode.
    The display will show the Menu Number and the
    Menu Item.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the Menu item to
    be modified.
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to change the current setting of the selected Menu item.
    Advice:
    Touch [BACK] on the LCD to cancel the setting.

       0$ 4' , ' %6+ 1 0

    MULTI Knob

    4. When the adjustment or setting is completed, touch
    [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting, then
    press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    F$

       0$ .'8 ' .

    

       $''2 . ' 8 ' .

    
       0$ 4' , ' %6+ 1 0

    F$

       0$ .'8 ' .

    

       $''2 . ' 8 ' .

    

    Menu Item

    Menu Number

       #)% ( # 5 6 & ' .#;

     O U G E

       #)% / + & & ' .#;

     O U G E

       #)% 5 . 1 9 & ' .#;

     O U G E

    Setting value

    Menu Resetting
    Use this procedure to restore the Menu settings to
    their factory defaults, without affecting the programmed frequency memories.
    1. Press the front panel ON/OFF switch to turn the
    transceiver off.
    2. While holding the MENU(SETUP) button in,
    press and hold in the front panel ON/OFF switch
    to turn the transceiver on. Once the transceiver
    comes on, release the buttons.

    Page 120

    ON/OFF Switch

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 123

    Menu Mode
    No.
    001

    Menu Function
    AGC FAST DELAY

    Available Settings
    20 - 4000 (20msec/step)

    Default Value
    300msec

    002

    AGC MID DELAY

    20 - 4000 (20msec/step)

    700msec

    003

    AGC SLOW DELAY

    20 - 4000 (20msec/step)

    3000msec

    004

    HOME FUNCTION

    SCOPE/FUNCTION

    SCOPE

    005

    MY CALL INDICATION

    OFF - 5sec

    1sec

    006

    DISPLAY COLOR

    BLUE/GRAY/GREEN/ORANGE/PURPLE/RED/SKY
    BLUE
    BLUE

    007

    DIMMER LED

    1/2

    2

    008

    DIMMER TFT

    0 - 15

    8

    009

    BAR MTR PEAK HOLD

    OFF/0.5/1.0/2.0 (sec)

    OFF

    010

    DVS RX OUT LEVEL

    0 - 100

    50

    011

    DVS TX OUT LEVEL

    0 - 100

    50

    012

    KEYER TYPE

    OFF/BUG/ELEKEY-A/ELEKEY-B/ELEKEY-Y/ACS

    ELEKEY-B

    013

    KEYER DOT/DASH

    NOR/REV

    NOR

    014

    CW WEIGHT

    2.5 - 4.5

    3.0

    015

    BEACON INTERVAL

    OFF/1 - 240sec/270 - 690sec

    OFF

    016

    NUMBER STYLE

    1290/AUNO/AUNT/A2NO/A2NT/12NO/12NT

    1290

    017

    CONTEST NUMBER

    0 - 9999

    1

    018

    CW MEMORY 1

    TEXT/MESSAGE

    TEXT

    019

    CW MEMORY 2

    TEXT/MESSAGE

    TEXT

    020

    CW MEMORY 3

    TEXT/MESSAGE

    TEXT

    021

    CW MEMORY 4

    TEXT/MESSAGE

    TEXT

    022

    CW MEMORY 5

    TEXT/MESSAGE

    TEXT

    023

    NB WIDTH

    1/3/10msec

    3msec

    024

    NB REJECTION

    10/30/50dB

    30dB

    025

    NB LEVEL

    0 - 10

    5

    026

    BEEP LEVEL

    0 - 100

    50

    027

    TIME ZONE

    -12:00 - 0:00 - +14:00

    0:00

    028

    GPS/232C SELECT

    GPS1/GPS2/RS232C

    GPS1

    029

    232C RATE

    4800/9600/19200/38400 (bps)

    4800bps

    030

    232C TOT

    10/100/1000/3000 (msec)

    10msec

    031

    CAT RATE

    4800/9600/19200/38400 (bps)

    4800bps

    032

    CAT TOT

    10/100/1000/3000 (msec)

    10msec

    033

    CAT RTS

    ENABLE/DISABLE

    ENABLE

    034

    MEM GROUP

    ENABLE/DISABLE

    DISABLE

    035

    QUICK SPLIT FREQ

    -20 - 20kHz

    5kHz

    036

    TX TOT

    OFF/1 - 30 (min)

    OFF (10ø)

    037

    MIC SCAN

    ENABLE/DISABLE

    ENABLE

    038

    MIC SCAN RESUME

    PAUSE/TIME

    TIME

    039

    REF FREQ ADJ

    -25 - 0 - 25

    0

    040

    CLAR MODE SELECT

    RX/TX/TRX

    RX

    041

    AM LCUT FREQ

    OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)

    OFF

    042

    AM LCUT SLOPE

    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct

    6dB/oct

    043

    AM HCUT FREQ

    700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step) / OFF

    OFF

    044

    AM HCUT SLOPE

    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct

    6dB/oct

    045

    AM MIC SELECT

    MIC/REAR

    MIC

    046

    AM OUT LEVEL

    0 - 100

    50

    047

    AM PTT SELECT

    DAKY/RTS/DTR

    DAKY

    048

    AM PORT SELECT

    DATA/USB

    DATA

    049

    AM DATA GAIN

    0 - 100

    50

    050

    CW LCUT FREQ

    OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz(50Hz/step)

    250Hz

    051

    CW LCUT SLOPE

    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct

    18dB/oct

    052

    CW HCUT FREQ

    700Hz - 4000Hz(50Hz/step) / OFF

    1200Hz

    ø: European Version.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 121



  • Page 124

    Menu Mode
    No.
    053
    054
    055
    056
    057
    058
    059
    060
    061
    062
    063
    064
    065
    066
    067
    068
    069
    070
    071
    072
    073
    074
    075
    076
    077
    078
    079
    080
    081
    082
    083
    084
    085
    086

    Menu Function
    CW HCUT SLOPE
    CW OUT LEVEL
    CW AUTO MODE
    CW BK-IN TYPE
    CW BK-IN DELAY
    CW WAVE SHAPE
    CW FREQ DISPLAY
    PC KEYING
    QSK DELAY TIME
    DATA MODE
    PSK TONE
    OTHER DISP (SSB)
    OTHER SHIFT (SSB)
    DATA LCUT FREQ
    DATA LCUT SLOPE
    DATA HCUT FREQ
    DATA HCUT SLOPE
    DATA IN SELECT
    DATA PTT SELECT
    DATA PORT SELECT
    DATA OUT LEVEL
    FM MIC SELECT
    FM OUT LEVEL
    FM PKT PTT SELECT
    FM PKT PORT SELECT
    FM PKT TX GAIN
    FM PKT MODE
    RPT SHIFT 28MHz
    RPT SHIFT 50MHz
    RPT SHIFT 144MHz
    RPT SHIFT 430MHz
    ARS 144MHz
    ARS 430MHz
    DCS POLARITY

    087

    RADIO ID

    088

    DIGITAL SQL TYPE

    089

    DIGITAL SQL CODE

    090

    GM DISPLY

    091

    DISTANCE

    092

    AMS TX MODE

    093

    STANDBY BEEP

    094

    RTTY LCUT FREQ

    095

    RTTY LCUT SLOPE

    096

    RTTY HCUT FREQ

    097

    RTTY HCUT SLOPE

    098

    RTTY SHIFT PORT

    099

    RTTY POLARITY-RX

    100

    RTTY POLARITY-TX

    101

    RTTY OUT LEVEL

    102

    RTTY SHIFT FREQ

    103

    RTTY MARK FREQ

    Page 122

    Available Settings
    Default Value
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    18dB/oct
    0 - 100
    50
    OFF/50M/ON
    OFF
    SEMI/FULL
    SEMI
    30 - 3000 (msec)
    200msec
    2/4 (msec)
    4msec
    PITCH OFFSE
    DIRECT FREQ/PITCH OFFSE
    OFF/DAKY/RTS/DTR
    OFF
    15/20/25/30(msec)
    15msec
    PSK/OTHERS
    PSK
    1000/1500/2000(Hz)
    1000Hz
    -3000 - 0 - 3000(10Hz/step)
    0Hz
    -3000 - 0 - 3000(10Hz/step)
    0Hz
    OFF/100 - 1000(Hz)(50Hz/step)
    300Hz
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    18dB/oct
    700Hz - 4000Hz(50Hz/step)/OFF
    3000Hz
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oc
    18dB/oct
    REAR/MIC
    REAR
    DAKY/RTS/DTR
    DAKY
    DATA/USB
    DATA
    0 - 100
    50
    MIC/REAR
    MIC
    0 - 100
    50
    DAKY/RTS/DTR
    DAKY
    DATA/USB
    DATA
    0 - 100
    50
    1200/9600
    1200
    0 - 1000kHz (10kHz/step)
    100kHz
    0 - 4000kHz (10kHz/step)
    1000kHz
    0 - 4000kHz (10kHz/step)
    600kHz
    0 - 10000kHz (10kHz/step)
    5000kHz
    OFF/ON
    ON
    OFF/ON
    ON
    Tn-Rn/Tn-Riv/Tiv-Rn/Tin-Riv
    Tn-Rn
    Displays the unique transceiver ID
    (The ID is unique to each transceiver and cannot be *****
    changed.)
    OFF/CODE/BREAK
    OFF
    001 - 126
    001
    DISTANCE/STRENGTH
    DISTANCE
    km/mile
    mile
    AUTO/MANUAL/DN/VW/ANALOG
    AUTO
    ON/OFF
    ON
    OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    300Hz
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    18dB/oct
    700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step) / OFF
    3000Hz
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    18dB/oct
    SHIFT/DTR/RTS
    SHIFT
    NOR/REV
    NOR
    NOR/REV
    NOR
    0 - 100
    50
    170/200/425/850 (Hz)
    170Hz
    1275/2125 (Hz)
    2125Hz

    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 125

    Menu Mode
    No.
    104
    105
    106
    107
    108
    109
    110
    111
    112
    113
    114
    115
    116
    117
    118
    119
    120
    121
    122
    123
    124
    125
    126
    127
    128
    129
    130
    131
    132
    133
    134
    135
    136
    137
    138
    139
    140
    141
    142
    143
    144
    145
    146
    147
    148
    149
    150
    151

    Menu Function
    SSB LCUT FREQ
    SSB LCUT SLOPE
    SSB HCUT FREQ
    SSB HCUT SLOPE
    SSB MIC SELECT
    SSB OUT LEVEL
    SSB PTT SELECT
    SSB PORT SELECT
    SSB TX BPF
    APF WIDTH
    CONTOUR LEVEL
    CONTOUR WIDTH
    IF NOTCH WIDTH
    SCP DISPLAY MODE
    SCP START CYCLE
    ASC DIAL SPEED
    SCP SPAN FREQ
    PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ
    PRMTRC EQ1 LEVEL
    PRMTRC EQ1 BWTH
    PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ
    PRMTRC EQ2 LEVEL
    PRMTRC EQ2 BWTH
    PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ
    PRMTRC EQ3 LEVEL
    PRMTRC EQ3 BWTH
    P-PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ
    P-PRMTRC EQ1 LEVEL
    P-PRMTRC EQ1 BWTH
    P-PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ
    P-PRMTRC EQ2 LEVEL
    P-PRMTRC EQ2 BWTH
    P-PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ
    P-PRMTRC EQ3 LEVEL
    P-PRMTRC EQ3 BWTH
    HF TX MAX POWER
    50M TX MAX POWER
    144M TX MAX POWER
    430M TX MAX POWER
    TUNER SELECT
    VOX SELECT
    VOX GAIN
    VOX DELAY
    ANTI VOX GAIN
    DATA VOX GAIN
    DATA VOX DELAY
    ANTI DVOX GAIN
    EMERGENCY FREQ TX

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Available Settings
    OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step) / OFF
    6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    MIC/REAR
    0 - 100
    DAKY/RTS/DTR
    DATA/USB
    100-3000/100-2900/200-2800/300-2700/400-2600
    NARROW/MEDIUM/WIDE
    -40 - 0 - 20
    1 - 11
    NARROW/WIDE
    SPECTRUM/WATER FALL
    OFF/3/5/10 (sec)
    0.25kHz/0.5kHz/1kHz/2kHz/4kHz (sec)/DISABLE
    50/100/200/500/1000 (kHz)
    OFF/100 - 700 (100/step)
    -20 - 0 - 10
    1 - 10
    OFF/700 - 1500 (100/step)
    -20 - 0 - 10
    1 - 10
    OFF/1500 - 3200 (100/step)
    -20 - 0 - 10
    1 - 10
    OFF/100 - 700 (100/step)
    -20 - 0 - 10
    1 - 10
    OFF/700 - 1500 (100/step)
    -20 - 0 - 10
    1 - 10
    OFF/1500 - 3200 (100/step)
    -20 - 0 - 10
    1 - 10
    5 - 100
    5 - 100
    0 - 50
    0 - 50
    OFF/INTERNAL/EXTERNAL/ATAS/LAMP
    MIC/DATA
    0 - 100
    30 - 3000 (msec)
    0 - 100
    0 - 100
    30 - 3000 (msec)
    0 - 100
    DISABLE/ENABLE

    Default Value
    100Hz
    6dB/oct
    3000Hz
    6dB/oct
    MIC
    50
    DAKY
    DATA
    300-2700
    MEDIUM
    -15
    10
    WIDE
    SPECTRUM
    OFF
    4kHz/sec
    100kHz
    OFF
    5
    10
    OFF
    5
    10
    OFF
    5
    10
    200
    0
    2
    800
    0
    1
    2100
    0
    1
    100
    100
    50
    50
    INTERNAL
    MIC
    50
    500msec
    50
    50
    100msec
    0
    DISABLE

    Page 123



  • Page 126

    Menu Mode
    001 AGC FAST DELAY

    Function: Sets the AGC-FAST DELAY voltage decay
    characteristics.
    Available Values: 20 - 4000msec (20msec/step)
    Default Setting: 300msec
    Description: Sets the AGC voltage decay characteristics
    in 20 msec steps after the input signal level becomes
    lower than the AGC detection level and the HOLD
    time is over.

    002 AGC MID DELAY

    Function: Sets the AGC-MID DELAY voltage decay
    characteristics.
    Available Values: 20 - 4000msec (20msec/step)
    Default Setting: 700msec
    Description: Sets the AGC voltage decay characteristics
    in 20 msec steps after the input signal level becomes
    lower than the AGC detection level and the HOLD
    time is over.

    007 DIMMER LED

    Function: Sets the key LED brightness level.
    Available Values: 1 / 2
    Default Setting: 2
    Description: Sets the brightness level of the LED indicator located above the Main Tuning Dial knob. The
    effect of the changes may be observed as the brightness level is adjusted. “1” is the darkest.

    008 DIMMER TFT

    Function: Sets the TFT display brightness level.
    Available Values: 0 - 15
    Default Setting: 8
    Description: Sets the brightness level of the TFT display.
    The effect of the changes may be observed as the
    brightness level is adjusted. The higher the setting,
    the brighter the illumination becomes.

    009 BAR MTR PEAK HOLD

    Function: Sets the AGC-SLOW DELAY voltage decay
    characteristics.
    Available Values: 20 - 4000msec (20msec/step)
    Default Setting: 3000msec
    Description: Sets the AGC voltage decay characteristics
    in 20 msec steps after the input signal level becomes
    lower than the AGC detection level and the HOLD
    time is over.

    Function: Sets the bar meter peak hold.
    Available Values: OFF/0.5/1.0/2.0 (sec)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: Sets the time length the maximum value
    reading is shown on the meter (peak hold).
    OFF:
    Disables the peak hold function.
    0.5/1.0/2.0:
    Holds the maximum value for the time length
    that is set.

    004 HOME FUNCTION

    010 DVS RX OUT LEVEL

    003 AGC SLOW DELAY

    Function: Selects the information to be displayed on the
    HOME screen.
    Available Values: SCOPE/FUNCTION
    Default Setting: SCOPE
    Description: Selects the information to be displayed on
    the HOME screen (main screen).
    SCOPE:
    Displays the scope screen.
    FUNCTION:
    Displays the function key screen.

    005 MY CALL INDICATION

    Function: Sets the display time duration for MY CALL.
    Available Values: OFF - 5sec
    Default Setting: 1sec
    Description: Sets the display time duration for a message such as the call sign set from MY CALL when
    turning on the power.

    Function: Sets the voice memory monitoring level.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default: 50
    Description: You can adjust the voice memory monitoring level. The higher the setting, the higher the output level becomes.

    011 DVS TX OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the microphone output level for the voice
    memory.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default: 50
    Description: The microphone output level may be adjusted to the operators own voice and preference.
    For example, the output level may be set differently
    between the microphone and the voice memory. The
    higher the setting, the higher the output level becomes.

    006 DISPLAY COLOR

    Function: Sets the background color of the VFO-A frequency display field.
    Available Values: BLUE/GRAY/GREEN/ORANGE/
    PURPLE/RED/SKY BLUE
    Default Setting: BLUE
    Description: Sets the background color of the VFO-A
    frequency display field. The color may be previewed
    before the selection is confirmed.

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  • Page 127

    Menu Mode
    012 KEYER TYPE

    Function: Switches the keyer operation.
    Available Values: OFF/BUG/ELEKEY-A/ELEKEY-B/
    ELEKEY-Y/ACS
    Default Setting: ELEKEY-B
    Description: Switches the keyer operation.
    OFF:
    Disables the keyer function.
    BUG:
    Functions as a “BUG key”. Only the “Dot” side
    is automatically generated (the “Dash” side is
    generated manually).
    ELEKEY-A:
    A code element (“Dot” or “Dash” side) is transmitted upon pressing both sides of the paddle.
    ELEKEY-B:
    Pressing both sides of the paddle transmits the
    currently generated “Dash” side followed by
    “Dot” side (or reverse order).
    ELEKEY-Y:
    Pressing both sides of the paddle transmits the
    currently generated “Dash” side followed by
    “Dot” side (or reverse order).
    While transmitting the “Dash” side, the first
    transmitted “Dot” side will not be stored.
    ACS:
    Functions as the “Keyer with automatic spacing control feature” which sets spacing between
    characters precisely to be the same length as a
    dash (three dots in length).

    013 KEYER DOT/DASH

    Function: Reverses the connections of the CW paddle
    front panel key jack
    Available Values: NOR/REV
    Default Setting: NOR
    Description: Reverses the connections of the CW paddle.
    NOR:
    Press the right side of the paddle to transmit the
    “Dot” signal and press the left side of the paddle
    to transmit the “Dash” signal.
    REV:
    Press the left side of the paddle to transmit the
    “Dash” signal and press the right side of the
    paddle to transmit the “Dot” signal.

    014 CW WEIGHT

    Function: Adjusts the keyer CW weight.
    Available Values: 2.5 - 4.5
    Default Setting: 3.0
    Description: Sets the “Dot”:“Dash” ratio for the built-in
    electronic keyer.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    015 BEACON INTERVAL

    Function: Sets the interval time between repeats of the
    beacon message.
    Available Values: OFF/1 - 240sec (1sec/step)/270 690sec (30sec/step)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: Sets the interval time between repeats of
    the beacon message.
    A message (message memory/text memory) registered in the contest memory keyer, may be transmitted as a CW Beacon message.
    If you do not want the message to repeat in a beacon
    mode, set this item to “OFF”.

    016 NUMBER STYLE

    Function: Selects the contest number “Cut” format for
    an imbedded contest number.
    Available Values: 1290/AUNO/AUNT/A2NO/A2NT/
    12NO/12NT
    Default Setting: 1290
    Description: Abbreviates numbers “One”, “Two”,
    “Nine” and “Zero” using Morse code when sending
    the contest number.
    1290:
    Does not abbreviate the contest number.
    AUNO:
    Abbreviates to “A” for “One”, “U” for “Two”,
    “N” for “Nine”, and “O” for “Zero”.
    AUNT:
    Abbreviates to “A” for “One”, “U” for “Two”,
    “N” for “Nine”, and “T” for “Zero”.
    A2NO:
    Abbreviates to “A” for “One”, “N” for “Nine”,
    and “O” for “Zero”. Does not abbreviate number
    “Two”.
    A2NT:
    Abbreviates to “A” for “One”, “N” for “Nine”,
    and “T” for “Zero”. Does not abbreviate number
    “Two”.
    12NO:
    Abbreviates to “N” for “Nine”, and “O” for
    “Zero”. Does not abbreviate numbers “One” and
    “Two”.
    12NT:
    Abbreviates to “N” for “Nine”, and “T” for
    “Zero”. Does not abbreviate numbers “One” and
    “Two”.

    017 CONTEST NUMBER

    Function: Enters the contest number using Morse code.
    Available Values: 0 - 9999
    Default Setting: 1
    Description: Enters the contest number using Morse
    code (page 84).

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  • Page 128

    Menu Mode
    018 CW MEMORY 1

    022 CW MEMORY 5

    019 CW MEMORY 2

    023 NB WIDTH

    Function: Selects the registration method for the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 1”.
    Available Values: TEXT/MESSAGE
    Default Setting: TEXT
    Description: Selects how to register text to the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 1”.
    TEXT:
    Use the optional FH-2 or the touch panel to enter
    text (page 87).
    MESSAGE:
    Use the keyer to register text to the contest memory keyer (page 84).
    Function: Selects the registration method for the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 2”.
    Available Values: TEXT/MESSAGE
    Default Setting: TEXT
    Description: Selects how to register text to the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 2”.
    TEXT:
    Use the optional FH-2 or the touch panel to enter
    text (page 87).
    MESSAGE:
    Use the keyer to register text to the contest memory keyer (page 84).

    020 CW MEMORY 3

    Function: Selects the registration method for the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 3”.
    Available Values: TEXT/MESSAGE
    Default Setting: TEXT
    Description: Selects how to register text to the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 3”.
    TEXT:
    Use the optional FH-2 or the touch panel to enter
    text (page 87).
    MESSAGE:
    Use the keyer to register text to the contest memory keyer (page 84).

    021 CW MEMORY 4

    Function: Selects the registration method for the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 4”.
    Available Values: TEXT/MESSAGE
    Default Setting: TEXT
    Description: Selects how to register text to the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 4”.
    TEXT:
    Use the optional FH-2 or the touch panel to enter
    text (page 87).
    MESSAGE:
    Use the keyer to register text to the contest memory keyer (page 84).

    Page 126

    Function: Selects the registration method for the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 5”.
    Available Values: TEXT/MESSAGE
    Default Setting: TEXT
    Description: Selects how to register text to the contest
    memory keyer “CW MEMORY 5”.
    TEXT:
    Use optional FH-2 or the touch panel to enter
    text (page 87).
    MESSAGE:
    Use the keyer to register text to the contest memory keyer (page 84).
    Function: Sets the duration of the noise blanking pulse
    to match various types of noise compatible with the
    noise blanker function.
    Available Values: 1msec/3msec/10msec
    Default Setting: 3msec
    Description: Reduces long duration noise as well as
    pulse noise by changing the setting.

    024 NB REJECTION

    Function: Selects the level of noise attenuation.
    Available Values: 10dB/30dB/50dB
    Default Setting: 30dB

    025 NB LEVEL

    Function: Sets the noise blanker level.
    Available Values: 0 - 10
    Default Setting: 5
    Description: Sets the noise blanker level to reduce pulse
    noise such as noise caused by automotive ignition
    systems. The higher the setting, the higher the noise
    blanker level becomes.

    026 BEEP LEVEL

    Function: Sets the beep level.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Sets the beep sound volume level. The
    higher the setting, the louder the sound becomes.

    027 TIME ZONE

    Function: Sets the time zone.
    Available Values: −12:00 - 0:00 - +14:00
    Default Setting: 0:00
    Description: Sets the time difference with respect to the
    UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) in 30 minute increments.

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  • Page 129

    Menu Mode
    028 GPS/232C SELECT

    Function: Selects functions of the GPS/CAT jack.
    Available Values: GPS1/GPS2/RS232C
    Default Setting: GPS1
    Description: Select the device that is to be connected to
    the GPS/CAT jack on the rear panel.
    GPS1:
    Enables connection to an external GPS device.
    GPS2:
    Enables connection to an external GPS device,
    and displays the location information in real time.
    RS232C:
    Enables connection for input of CAT commands.

    029 232C RATE

    Function: Sets the baud rate for a GPS/CAT jack command input.
    Available Values: 4800/9600/19200/38400 bps
    Default Setting: 4800 bps
    Description: Sets the baud rate for an RS-232C command input.

    030 232C TOT

    Function: Sets the Time-Out Timer for an RS-232C
    command input.
    Available Values: 10/100/1000/3000 (msec)
    Default Setting: 10msec
    Description: Sets the Time-Out Timer countdown time
    for a RS-232C command input.

    031 CAT RATE

    Function: Sets the baud rate for a CAT command input.
    Available Values: 4800/9600/19200/38400 bps
    Default Setting: 4800 bps
    Description: Sets the baud rate for a CAT command input.

    032 CAT TOT

    Function: Sets the Time-Out Timer for a CAT command
    input.
    Available Values: 10/100/1000/3000 (msec)
    Default Setting: 10msec
    Description: Sets the Time-Out Timer countdown time
    for a CAT command input.

    033 CAT RTS

    Function: Configures the CAT RTS port setting.
    Available Values: ENABLE/DISABLE
    Default Setting: ENABLE
    Description: Monitors the computer using the RTS signal.
    ENABLE:
    Monitors the computer status using the RTS signal.
    DISABLE:
    Disables the monitoring function.

    034 MEM GROUP

    Function: Sets the memory group function.
    Available Values: ENABLE/DISABLE
    Default Setting: DISABLE
    Description: Set this setting to “ENABLE” to divide the
    memory channels into 6 groups.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    035 QUICK SPLIT FREQ

    Function: Selects the amount of frequency offset when
    the Quick Split feature is enabled.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 20kHz (1kHz/step)
    Default Setting: 5kHz
    Description: Sets the amount of frequency offset when
    the Quick Split feature is enabled.
    Advice: Press and hold the SPLIT button on the front
    panel to activate VFO-B split frequency operation, thereby offsetting the transmitter by the
    specified frequency.
    Each time the SPLIT button is pressed and
    held, the offset frequency is increased by the
    setting amount.

    036 TX TOT

    Function: Sets the Time-Out Timer countdown time.
    Available Values: OFF/1 - 30min
    Default Setting: OFF (10 min, European Version)
    Description: Forces the transceiver to return to receiving mode after continuous transmission of the programmed time.

    037 MIC SCAN

    Function: Sets the microphone automatic scanning function to ON or OFF.
    Available Values: ENABLE/DISABLE
    Default Setting: ENABLE
    Description: Selects the operation of the UP/DWN buttons on the microphone.
    ENABLE (ON):
    Starts scanning automatically by pressing and
    holding the UP/DWN button for 1 second or
    more (Scanning continues even after releasing
    the button). To stop scanning, press the UP/DWN
    button again briefly or press the PTT button to
    transmit.
    DISABLE (OFF):
    Scans only while pressing and holding the UP/
    DWN button. To stop scanning, release the button.

    038 MIC SCAN RESUME

    Function: Sets the Scan Resume function.
    Available Values: PAUSE/TIME
    Default Setting: TIME
    Description: Sets the Scan Resume function (in AM/FM
    mode).
    PAUSE:
    During automatic scanning, the scanner will hold
    until the signal disappears.
    TIME:
    If the signal does not disappear within five seconds, the scanner will resume scanning for the
    next active channel (frequency). If there is no
    signal, the scanner continues scanning automatically.

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    Menu Mode
    039 REF FREQ ADJ

    Function: Adjusts the reference oscillator.
    Available Values: −25 - 0 - 25
    Default Setting: 0
    Description: The frequency may be calibrated when
    connecting a frequency counter to the transceiver, or
    when receiving a standard frequency such as WWV
    or WWVH.

    040 CLAR MODE SELECT

    Function: Selects the clarifier operation.
    Available Values: RX/TX/TRX
    Default Setting: RX
    Description: Selects the clarifier operation when the
    CLAR button is pressed.
    RX:
    Functions as the RX clarifier which changes only
    the receiver frequency without changing transmit
    frequency.
    TX:
    Functions as the TX clarifier which changes only
    the transmit frequency without changing the receiver frequency.
    TRX:
    Functions as the TRX clarifier which changes the
    transmit frequency and the receiver frequency
    simultaneously.

    041 AM LCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    AM mode.
    Available Values: OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: This is the low-frequency cutoff audio filter
    in AM mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz.

    044 AM HCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in AM mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 6dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in AM mode.

    045 AM MIC SELECT

    Function: Selects the microphone input jack for AM
    mode.
    Available Values: MIC/REAR
    Default Setting: MIC
    Description: Selects the microphone input jack to be
    used in AM mode.
    FRONT:
    Audio is input from the MIC jack on the front
    panel.
    DATA:
    Disables the microphone circuit on the front
    panel and inputs audio/data from the USB jack
    or RTTY/DATA jack on the rear panel.

    046 AM OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the level of the receive AM signal output
    from the RTTY/DATA jack.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50

    047 AM PTT SELECT

    Function: Sets the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in AM mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 6dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in AM mode.

    Function: Sets the PTT control for the AM transmit signal.
    Available Values: DAKY/RTS/DTR
    Default Setting: DAKY
    Description: Selects the PTT control method for the AM
    transmit.
    DAKY:
    Controls the AM transmit signal from the RTTY/
    DATA jack (pin 3) on the rear panel.
    DTR:
    Controls the AM transmit signal from the USB
    virtual COM/DTR ports.
    RTS:
    Controls the AM transmit signal from the USB
    virtual COM/RTS ports.

    043 AM HCUT FREQ

    048 AM PORT SELECT

    042 AM LCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    AM mode.
    Available Values: OFF/700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: This is the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in AM mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 700 Hz and 4000 Hz.

    Page 128

    Function: Selects the input jack of the AM signal.
    Available Values: DATA/USB
    Default Setting: DATA
    Description: Selects the input jack of the AM signal
    when “045 AM MIC SELECT” is set to “DATA”.
    DATA:
    Inputs from the RTTY/DATA jack on the rear
    panel.
    USB:
    Inputs from the USB jack on the rear panel.

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  • Page 131

    Menu Mode
    049 AM DATA GAIN

    Function: Sets the level of the AM signal input when
    “045 AM MIC SELECT” is set to “DATA”.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50

    050 CW LCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    CW mode.
    Available Values: OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 250Hz
    Description: This is the low-frequency cutoff audio filter
    in CW mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz.

    051 CW LCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in CW mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 18dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in CW mode.

    052 CW HCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    CW mode.
    Available Values: OFF/700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 1200Hz
    Description: This is the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in CW mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 700 Hz and 4000 Hz.

    053 CW HCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in CW mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 18dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in CW mode.

    054 CW OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the level of the CW signal output from
    the RTTY/DATA jack.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    055 CW AUTO MODE

    Function: Enables/disables CW keying while operating
    on SSB.
    Available Values: OFF/50M (50MHz)/ON
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description:
    OFF:
    Disables CW keying while operating on SSB.
    50M:
    Enables CW keying while operating SSB on 50
    MHz (but not HF).
    ON:
    Enables CW keying while operating SSB on all
    TX bands.

    056 CW BK-IN TYPE

    Function: Sets the CW brake-in function.
    Available Values: SEMI/FULL
    Default Setting: SEMI
    Description: Selects the CW brake-in function.
    SEMI:
    A brief delay is provided after the CW keying operation, before the transceiver returns to receive
    mode.
    The receiver recovery time may be changed using MENU “057 CW BK-IN DELAY”.
    FULL:
    The transceiver immediately returns to receive
    mode after every CW key-up (QSK mode).

    057 CW BK-IN DELAY

    Function: Sets the CW delay time.
    Available Values: 30msec - 3000msec (10msec/step)
    Default Setting: 200msec
    Description: In semi break-in mode, this setting determines the delay time before returning to receive
    mode after the CW keying operation.
    The delay time can be changed in 10 msec steps between 30 msec and 3000 msec.

    058 CW WAVE SHAPE

    Function: Selects the CW carrier wave-form shape (rise/
    fall times).
    Available Values: 2ms/4ms
    Default Setting: 4ms (msec)
    Description: Sets the rise and fall times of the keying
    envelope in CW mode (transmit waveform).

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  • Page 132

    Menu Mode
    059 CW FREQ DISPLAY

    Function: Sets the PITCH frequency offset.
    Available Values: DIRECT FREQ/PITCH OFFSET
    Default Setting: PITCH OFFSET
    Description: Sets the displayed frequency offset when
    switching the transceiver mode between SSB and CW.
    DIRECT FREQ:
    Displays the same frequency in CW mode as in
    SSB mode without any offset added.
    PITCH OFFSET:
    Displays the frequency in CW mode with the
    pitch offset added. When CW BFO is set to USB,
    the displayed frequency will be increased and
    when CW BFO is set to LSB, the displayed frequency will be decreased with pitch offset added.

    060 PC KEYING

    Function: Sets the RTTY/DATA jack for keying.
    Available Values: OFF/DAKY/RTS/DTR
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description:
    OFF:
    Disables keying from DATA PTT (pin 3) of the
    RTTY/DATA jack.
    DAKY:
    Controls the transmit from the RTTY/DATA jack
    (pin 3) on the rear panel.
    RTS:
    Controls the transmit from the USB virtual COM/
    RTS ports.
    DTR:
    Controls the transmit from the USB virtual COM/
    DTR ports.

    061 QSK DELAY TIME

    Function: Sets the time delay before transmitting the
    keying signal.
    Available Values: 15/20/25/30msec
    Default Setting: 15msec
    Description: The delay time in QSK mode before transmitting the CW signal may be set in 5 msec steps.

    062 DATA MODE

    Function: Selects the operating scheme in DATA mode.
    Available Values: PSK/OTHERS
    Default Setting: PSK
    Description: Selects the operating scheme (PSK or
    OTHERS) in DATA mode.

    063 PSK TONE

    Function: Set the PSK tone.
    Available Values: 1000/1500/2000Hz
    Default Setting: 1000Hz
    Description: Selects the PSK tone frequency.

    064 OTHER DISP (SSB)

    Function: Sets the displayed frequency offset in DATA
    mode.
    Available Values: −3000 - 0 - 3000Hz (10Hz/step)

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    Default: 0Hz
    Description: Sets the displayed frequency offset in
    DATA mode. The frequency can be set in steps of 10
    Hz.

    065 OTHER SHIFT (SSB)

    Function: Sets the carrier point in DATA mode.
    Available Values: −3000 - 0 - 3000Hz (10Hz/step)
    Default: 0Hz
    Description: Sets the carrier point in DATA mode. The
    frequency can be set in steps of 10 Hz.

    066 DATA LCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    DATA mode.
    Available Values: OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 300Hz
    Description: This is the low-frequency cutoff audio filter
    in DATA mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz.

    067 DATA LCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in DATA mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 18dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope setting of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in DATA mode.

    068 DATA HCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    DATA mode.
    Available Values: OFF/700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 3000Hz
    Description: This is the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in DATA mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 700 Hz and 4000 Hz.

    069 DATA HCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in DATA mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 18dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope setting of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in DATA mode.

    070 DATA IN SELECT

    Function: Selects the input jack for DATA mode.
    Available Values: MIC/REAR
    Default Setting: REAR
    Description: Selects the input jack to be used in DATA
    mode.
    MIC:
    Inputs signals from the MIC jack on the front
    panel.
    REAR:
    Inputs signals from the USB jack or RTTY/
    DATA jack on the rear panel.

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    Menu Mode
    071 DATA PTT SELECT

    Function: Sets the PTT control during the sending/receiving of data.
    Available Values: DAKY/RTS/DTR
    Default Setting: DAKY
    Description: Selects the PTT control method during the
    sending/receiving of data.
    DAKY:
    Controls the transmit from the RTTY/DATA jack
    (pin 3) on the rear panel.
    DTR:
    Controls the transmit from the USB virtual COM/
    DTR ports.
    RTS:
    Controls the transmit from the USB virtual COM/
    RTS ports.

    072 DATA PORT SELECT

    Function: Selects the input jack of the data signal.
    Available Values: DATA/USB
    Default Setting: DATA
    Description: Selects the input jack of the data signal
    when “070 DATA IN SELECT” is set to “REAR”.
    DATA:
    Inputs the data from the RTTY/DATA jack on
    the rear panel.
    USB:
    Inputs the data from the USB jack on the rear
    panel.

    073 DATA OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the output level during the sending/receiving of data (PSK31, SSTV, etc.).
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Sets the output level during the sending/receiving of data (PSK31, SSTV, etc.). The higher the
    setting, the higher the output level becomes.

    074 FM MIC SELECT

    Function: Selects the microphone input jack for FM
    mode.
    Available Values: MIC/REAR
    Default Setting: MIC
    Description: Selects the microphone input jack to be
    used in FM mode.
    FRONT:
    Inputs from the MIC jack on the front panel.
    DATA:
    Disables the microphone circuit on the front
    panel and inputs from the USB jack or PACKET
    jack on the rear panel.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    075 FM OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the level of the FM receiving signal output from the RTTY/DATA jack.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50

    076 FM PKT PTT SELECT

    Function: Sets the PTT control for the FM signal.
    Available Values: DAKY/RTS/DTR
    Default Setting: DAKY
    Description: Selects the PTT control method for the FM
    signal.
    DAKY:
    Controls the transmit from the RTTY/DATA jack
    (pin 3) on the rear panel.
    DTR:
    Controls the transmit from the USB virtual COM/
    DTR ports.
    RTS:
    Controls the transmit from the USB virtual COM/
    RTS ports.

    077 FM PKT PORT SELECT

    Function: Selects the input jack of the FM packet signal.
    Available Values: DATA/USB
    Default Setting: DATA
    Description: Selects the input jack of the FM signal
    when “074 FM MIC SELECT” is set to “DATA”.
    DATA:
    Inputs from the RTTY/DATA jack on the rear
    panel.
    USB:
    Inputs from the USB jack on the rear panel.

    078 FM PKT TX GAIN

    Function: Sets the transmission gain during the FM
    packet operation.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50

    079 FM PKT MODE

    Function: Sets the baud rate (communication speed) during the FM packet operation.
    Available Values: 1200/9600
    Default Setting: 1200

    080 RPT SHIFT 28MHz

    Function: Sets the RPT offset frequency on the 28 MHz
    band.
    Available Values: 0 - 1000kHz (10kHz/step)
    Default Setting: 100kHz
    Description: Sets the repeater offset frequency on the 28
    MHz band.

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  • Page 134

    Menu Mode
    081 RPT SHIFT 50MHz

    Function: Sets the RPT offset frequency on the 50 MHz
    band.
    Available Values: 0 - 4000kHz (10kHz/step)
    Default Setting: 1000kHz
    Description: Sets the repeater offset frequency on the 50
    MHz band.

    082 RPT SHIFT 144MHz

    Function: Sets the RPT offset frequency on the 144
    MHz band.
    Available Values: 0 - 4000kHz (10kHz/step)
    Default Setting: 600kHz
    Description: Sets the repeater offset frequency on the
    144 MHz band.

    083 RPT SHIFT 430MHz

    Function: Sets the RPT offset frequency on the 430
    MHz band.
    Available Values: 0 - 10000kHz (10kHz/step)
    Default Setting: 5000kHz
    Description: Sets the repeater offset frequency on the
    430 MHz band.

    084 ARS 144MHz

    Function: Sets the ARS function on the 144 MHz band.
    Available Values: OFF/ON
    Default Setting: ON
    Description:
    OFF:
    Disables the ARS function.
    ON:
    Enables the ARS function.

    085 ARS 430MHz

    Function: Sets the ARS function on the 430 MHz band.
    Available Values: OFF/ON
    Default Setting: ON
    Description:
    OFF:
    Disables the ARS function.
    ON:
    Enables the ARS function.

    086 DCS POLARITY

    Function: Selects the DCS code polarity.
    Available Values: Tn-Rn/Tn-Riv/Tiv-Rn/Tiv-Riv
    Default Setting: Tn-Rn
    Description: When using the DCS function, the transceiver can transmit/receive the DCS code with the
    phase reversed.
    Tn-Rn:
    Transmit (in phase), receive (in phase)
    Tn-Riv:
    Transmit (in phase), receive (reverse phase)
    Tiv-Rn:
    Transmit (reverse phase), receive (in phase)
    Tiv-Riv:
    Transmit (reverse phase), receive (reverse phase)

    Page 132

    087 RADIO ID

    Function: Displays the unique transceiver ID assigned at
    the time of shipment (5-digit alphanumeric characters).
    Available Values: Cannot be changed.
    Default Setting: Differs depending on the transceiver.

    088 DIGITAL SQL TYPE

    Function: Sets the squelch type in digital mode.
    Available Values: OFF/CODE/BREAK
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: Selects the squelch type in digital mode.
    OFF:
    Outputs the audio whenever the transceiver
    receives a digital signal from another YAESU
    transceiver.
    CODE:
    The audio is output only when the SQL code of
    the received signal matches the setting.
    BREAK:
    With the BREAK setting on, the audio is output,
    whenever a signal is received from another station with the BREAK setting on, regardless of
    the code setting.

    089 DIGITAL SQL CODE

    Function: Sets the squelch code for digital mode.
    Available Values: 001 - 126
    Default Setting: 001

    090 GM DISPLAY

    Function: Sorts the group stations to be displayed when
    using the GM function.
    Available Values: DISTANCE/STRENGTH
    Default Setting: DISTANCE
    Description:
    DISTANCE:
    Active group member stations are displayed according to their distance from this station, beginning with the closest member station.
    STRENGTH:
    Active group member stations are displayed according to their signal strengths, beginning with
    the strongest signal first.

    091 DISTANCE

    Function: Sets the unit of measure to indicate the distance between your station and communication stations when using the GM function.
    Available Values: km/mile
    Default Setting: mile

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  • Page 135

    Menu Mode
    092 AMS TX MODE

    Function: Sets the operation of the AMS function.
    Available Values: AUTO/MANUAL/DN/VW/ANALOG
    Default Setting: AUTO
    Description: When using the AMS (AUTO) function,
    the transceiver selects one of the three transmission
    modes automatically according to the received signal.
    AUTO:
    Selects one of the transmission modes automatically according to the received signal.
    MANUAL:
    By briefly pressing the PTT switch, the operating
    mode may be switched between digital and analog mode.
    DN:
    Transmits in DN mode.
    VW:
    Transmits in VW mode.
    ANALOG:
    Transmits in FM mode (analog).

    093 STANDBY BEEP

    Function: Sets the Standby Beep function for digital
    communications.
    Available Values: OFF/ON
    Default Setting: ON
    Description: During a digital communication, an audible
    beep sounds to indicate that the contact station has
    completed a transmission (Standby Beep function).

    094 RTTY LCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    RTTY mode.
    Available Values: OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 300Hz
    Description: This is the low-frequency cutoff audio filter
    in RTTY mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz.

    095 RTTY LCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in RTTY mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 18dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope setting of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in RTTY mode.

    096 RTTY HCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    RTTY mode.
    Available Values: OFF/700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 3000Hz
    Description: This is the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in RTTY mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 700 Hz and 4000 Hz.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    097 RTTY HCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in RTTY mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 18dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope setting of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in RTTY mode.

    098 RTTY SHIFT PORT

    Function: Sets the SHIFT input jack for RTTY mode.
    Available Values: SHIFT/DTR/RTS
    Default Setting: SHIFT
    Description: Selects the SHIFT input jack for RTTY
    mode.
    SHIFT:
    Inputs from the RTTY/DATA jack (pin 4) on the
    rear panel.
    DTR:
    Controls the signal from the USB virtual COM/
    DTR ports.
    RTS:
    Controls the signal from the USB virtual COM/
    RTS ports.

    099 RTTY POLARITY-RX

    Function: Sets the shift direction for receiving in RTTY
    mode.
    Available Values: NOR/REV
    Default Setting: NOR
    Description: Sets the shift direction for receiving in
    RTTY mode.
    NOR:
    The space frequency will be lower than the mark
    frequency.
    REV:
    The mark frequency will be lower than the space
    frequency.

    100 RTTY POLARITY-TX

    Function: Sets the shift direction for transmitting in
    RTTY mode.
    Available Values: NOR/REV
    Default Setting: NOR
    Description: Sets the shift direction for transmitting in
    RTTY mode.
    NOR:
    The space frequency will be lower than the mark
    frequency.
    REV:
    The mark frequency will be lower than the space
    frequency.

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  • Page 136

    Menu Mode
    101 RTTY OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the output level during the sending/receiving of data in RTTY mode.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Sets the data output level during the sending/receiving of data in RTTY mode. The higher the
    setting, the higher the output level becomes.

    102 RTTY SHIFT FREQ

    Function: Sets the shift width for RTTY mode.
    Available Values: 170/200/425/850 (Hz)
    Default Setting: 170Hz
    Description: Sets the shift width for RTTY mode.

    103 RTTY MARK FREQ

    Function: Sets the mark frequency for RTTY mode.
    Available Values: 1275/2125 (Hz)
    Default Setting: 2125Hz
    Description: Sets the mark frequency for RTTY mode.

    104 SSB LCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    SSB mode.
    Available Values: OFF/100Hz - 1000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 100Hz
    Description: This is the low-frequency cutoff audio filter
    in SSB mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz.

    105 SSB LCUT SLOPE

    Function: Sets the slope of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in SSB mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 6dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope setting of the low-frequency cutoff audio filter in SSB mode.

    106 SSB HCUT FREQ

    Function: Sets the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in
    SSB mode.
    Available Values: OFF/700Hz - 4000Hz (50Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 3000Hz
    Description: This is the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in SSB mode.
    The cutoff frequency can be set at 50 Hz increments
    between 700 Hz and 4000 Hz.

    107 SSB HCUT SLOPE

    108 SSB MIC SELECT

    Function: Selects the microphone input jack for SSB
    mode.
    Available Values: MIC/REAR
    Default Setting: MIC
    Description: Selects the microphone input jack to be
    used in SSB mode.
    FRONT:
    Inputs from the MIC jack on the front panel.
    DATA:
    Disables the microphone circuit on the front
    panel and inputs from the USB jack or RTTY/
    DATA jack on the rear panel.

    109 SSB OUT LEVEL

    Function: Sets the level of the SSB receiving signal output from the RTTY/DATA jack.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50

    110 SSB PTT SELECT

    Function: Sets the PTT transmit control for the SSB signal.
    Available Values: DAKY/RTS/DTR
    Default Setting: DAKY
    Description: Selects the PTT transmit control method
    for the SSB signal.
    DAKY:
    Controls the transmit signal from the RTTY/
    DATA jack (pin 3) on the rear panel.
    DTR:
    Controls the transmit signal from the USB virtual
    COM/DTR ports.
    RTS:
    Controls the transmit signal from the USB virtual
    COM/RTS ports.

    111 SSB PORT SELECT

    Function: Sets the input jack of the SSB signal.
    Available Values: DATA/USB
    Default Setting: DATA
    Description: Selects the input jack of the SSB signal
    when “108 SSB MIC SELECT” is set to “DATA”.
    DATA:
    Inputs from the RTTY/DATA jack on the rear
    panel.
    USB:
    Inputs from the USB jack on the rear panel.

    Function: Sets the slope of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in SSB mode.
    Available Values: 6dB/oct / 18dB/oct
    Default Setting: 6dB/oct
    Description: Selects the slope setting of the high-frequency cutoff audio filter in SSB mode.

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  • Page 137

    Menu Mode
    112 SSB TX BPF

    Function: Sets the frequency characteristics of the DSP
    band-pass filter for transmitting in SSB mode.
    Available Values: 100-3000/100-2900/200-2800/3002700/400-2600
    Default Setting: 300-2700Hz
    Description: Selects the frequency characteristics setting
    of the DSP band-pass filter when transmitting in SSB
    mode.

    113 APF WIDTH

    Function: Sets the bandwidth of the audio peak filter.
    Available Values: NARROW/MEDIUM/WIDE
    Default Setting: MEDIUM
    Description: In CW mode the APF peak center frequency is set according to the CW PITCH frequency and
    the chosen APF bandwidth value. In order to listen
    to the desired signal comfortably, select one of the
    three bandwidths of the peak filter.

    114 CONTOUR LEVEL

    Function: Adjusts the GAIN of the CONTOUR circuit.
    Available Values: −40 - 0 - 20
    Default Setting: −15
    Description: Sets level of the attenuation or the gain of
    the CONTOUR circuit.

    115 CONTOUR WIDTH

    118 SCP START CYCLE

    Function: Selects the sweep interval of the Spectrum
    Scope feature.
    Available Values: OFF/3sec/5sec/10sec
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: The scope spectrum is repeatedly swept according the set interval.

    119 ASC DIAL SPEED

    Function: Selects the start condition of the Dial Auto
    Scope feature whenever the Main Tuning Dial is
    turned.
    Available Values: 0.25/0.5/1/2/4kHz (sec)/DISABLE
    Default Setting: 4kHz/sec
    Description: When the Main Tuning Dial knob is rotated
    at the set speed in ASC mode, the spectrum scope
    sweeping is started automatically.

    120 SCP SPAN FREQ

    Function: Sets the bandwidth of the spectrum scope
    sweeping.
    Available Values: 50/100/200/500/1000 (kHz)
    Default Setting: 100kHz
    Description: Sets the bandwidth (SPAN) of the spectrum
    scope.

    121 PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ

    Function: Sets the bandwidth (“Q”) of the CONTOUR
    circuit.
    Available Values: 1 - 11
    Default Setting: 10
    Description: Sets the bandwidth (WIDTH) of the CONTOUR circuit.

    Function: Sets the center frequency of the low range for
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: 100 - 700 (Hz)/OFF (100Hz/step)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: Selects the center frequency setting of the
    low range of the 3 band parametric microphone
    equalizer between “100 Hz” and “700 Hz”.

    116 IF NOTCH WIDTH

    122 PRMTRC EQ1 LEVEL

    117 SCP DISPLAY MODE

    123 PRMTRC EQ1 BWTH

    Function: Sets the attenuation bandwidth characteristic
    of the DSP IF notch filter on the VFO-A.
    Available Values: NARROW/WIDE
    Default Setting: WIDE
    Description: Selects the attenuation bandwidth characteristic setting of the DSP IF notch filter to “NARROW” or “WIDE”.
    Function: Sets the scope for either the spectrum or the
    waterfall display.
    Available Values: SPECTRUM/WATER FALL
    Default Setting: SPECTRUM
    Description: Selects the type of display when the scope
    feature activates.
    SPECTRUM:
    Enables the spectrum display.
    WATER FALL:
    Enables the waterfall display.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Function: Sets the gain for the low range of the 3 band
    parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 10 (dB)
    Default Setting: 5
    Description: Adjusts the gain for the low range of the 3
    band parametric microphone equalizer between “−20
    dB” and “+10 dB”.
    Function: Sets the width variation (“Q”) for the low
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: 1 - 10
    Default Setting: 10
    Description: Selects the value of the width (Q) for the
    low range for the 3 band parametric microphone
    equalizer between “1” and “10”.

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  • Page 138

    Menu Mode
    124 PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ

    Function: Sets the center frequency for the middle range
    of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: 700 - 1500 (Hz)/OFF (100Hz/step)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: Selects the center frequency setting for the
    middle range of the 3 band parametric microphone
    equalizer between “700 Hz” and “1500 Hz”.

    125 PRMTRC EQ2 LEVEL

    Function: Sets the gain for the middle range of the 3
    band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 10 (dB)
    Default Setting: 5
    Description: Selects the gain setting for the middle
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    between “−20 dB” and “+10 dB”.

    126 PRMTRC EQ2 BWTH

    Function: Sets the width variation (“Q”) for the middle
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: 1 - 10
    Default Setting: 10
    Description: Selects the width (“Q”) for the middle
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    between “1” and “10”.

    127 PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ

    Function: Sets the center frequency for the high range of
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: 1500 - 3200 (Hz)/OFF (100Hz/step)
    Default Setting: OFF
    Description: Selects the center frequency setting for
    the high range of the 3 band parametric microphone
    equalizer between “1500 Hz” and “3200 Hz”.

    128 PRMTRC EQ3 LEVEL

    Function: Sets the gain for the high range of the 3 band
    parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 10 (dB)
    Default Setting: 5
    Description: Selects the gain setting for the high range
    of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer between “−20 dB” and “+10 dB”.

    129 PRMTRC EQ3 BWTH

    Function: Selects the width setting (“Q”) for the high
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer.
    Available Values: 1 - 10
    Default Setting: 10
    Description: Selects the width (“Q”) setting for the high
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    between “1” and “10”.

    Page 136

    130 P-PRMTRC EQ1 FREQ

    Function: Sets the center frequency of the low range for
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer when
    the speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: 100 - 700 (Hz)/OFF (100Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 200
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON”. Adjusts the center frequency for the low
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    between “100 Hz” and “700 Hz”.

    131 P-PRMTRC EQ1 LEVEL

    Function: Selects the gain setting for the low range of
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer when
    the speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 10 (dB)
    Default Setting: 0
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON”and sets the gain for the low range of the 3
    band parametric microphone equalizer between “−20
    dB” and “+10 dB”.

    132 P-PRMTRC EQ1 BWTH

    Function: Selects the width (“Q”) for the low range of
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer when
    the speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: 1 - 10
    Default Setting: 2
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON” and sets the width (“Q”) for the low range of
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer between
    “1” and “10”.

    133 P-PRMTRC EQ2 FREQ

    Function: Selects the center frequency for the middle
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    when the speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: 700 - 1500 (Hz)/OFF (100Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 800
    Description: Selects the center frequency for the middle
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    between “700 Hz” and “1500 Hz” when the speech
    processor is activated.

    134 P-PRMTRC EQ2 LEVEL

    Function: Sets the gain for the middle range of the 3
    band parametric microphone equalizer when the
    speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 10 (dB)
    Default Setting: 0
    Description: Selects the gain setting for the middle
    range of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer
    between “−20 dB” and “+10 dB” when the speech
    processor is activated.

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  • Page 139

    Menu Mode
    135 P-PRMTRC EQ2 BWTH

    Function: Sets the width (“Q”) for the middle range of
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer when
    the speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: 1 - 10
    Default Setting: 1
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON”, and selects the width (“Q”) setting for the
    middle range of the 3 band parametric microphone
    equalizer between “1” and “10”.

    136 P-PRMTRC EQ3 FREQ

    Function: Sets the center frequency for the high range
    of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer when
    the speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: 1500 - 3200 (Hz)/OFF (100Hz/step)
    Default Setting: 2100
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON”, and selects the center frequency setting for
    the high range of the 3 band parametric microphone
    equalizer between “1500 Hz” and “3200 Hz”.

    137 P-PRMTRC EQ3 LEVEL

    Function: Sets the gain for the high range of the 3 band
    parametric microphone equalizer when the speech
    processor is activated.
    Available Values: −20 - 0 - 10 (dB)
    Default Setting: 0
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON”, and selects the gain setting for the high range
    of the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer between “−20 dB” and “+10 dB”.

    138 P-PRMTRC EQ3 BWTH

    Function: Sets the width (“Q”) for the high range of the
    3 band parametric microphone equalizer when the
    speech processor is activated.
    Available Values: 1 - 10
    Default Setting: 1
    Description: Activates when the speech processor is
    “ON”, and sets the width (‘Q”) for the high range of
    the 3 band parametric microphone equalizer between
    “1” and “10”.

    139 HF TX MAX POWER

    Function: Sets the transmit RF power output of the HF
    band.
    Available Values: 5 - 100
    Default Setting: 100
    Description: Adjusts the setting of the HF bands transmitter power output.

    140 50M TX MAX POWER

    Function: Sets the transmit RF power output of the 50
    MHz band.
    Available Values: 5 - 100
    Default Setting: 100
    Description: Adjusts the setting of the 50 MHz band
    transmitter power output.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    141 144 TX MAX POWER

    Function: Sets the transmit RF power output of the 144
    MHz band.
    Available Values: 0 - 50
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Adjusts the setting of the 144 MHz band
    transmitter power output.

    142 430M TX MAX POWER

    Function: Sets the transmit RF power output of the 430
    MHz band.
    Available Values: 0 - 50
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Adjusts the setting of the 430 MHz band
    transmitter power output.

    143 TUNER SELECT

    Function: Sets the functions of the antenna tuner.
    Available Values: O F F / I N T E R N A L / E X T E R N A L /
    ATAS/LAMP
    Default Setting: INTERNAL
    Description: Selects the antenna tuner to be used or sets
    the connections for a linear amplifier.
    INTERNAL:
    Select this item when using the internal antenna
    tuner.
    EXTERNAL:
    Select this item when using the external antenna
    tuner (the optional FC-40, etc.).
    ATAS:
    Select this item when using the active tuning antenna system ATAS-120A.
    LAMP:
    Select this item when connecting the linear amplifier to the TUN/LIN jack on the rear panel.
    OFF:
    Select this item when not using the antenna tuner
    or the linear amplifier.

    144 VOX SELECT

    Function: Selects the function of the VOX operation.
    Available Values: MIC/DATA
    Default Setting: MIC
    Description: Selects the function of the VOX operation.
    MIC:
    Operates via input from the MIC jack (microphone).
    DATA:
    Operates via input from the RTTY/PKT or USB jack.

    145 VOX GAIN

    Function: Sets the VOX gain.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Sets the operation sensitivity of the VOX
    circuit. “1” represents the minimum sensitivity and
    “100” represents the maximum sensitivity. The
    VOX operation sensitivity may be adjusted while
    transmitting the signal.

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  • Page 140

    Menu Mode
    146 VOX DELAY

    Function: Sets the VOX delay time.
    Available Values: 30 - 3000 msec (10 msec/step)
    Default Setting: 500 msec
    Description: While operating VOX, the recovery time
    (delay time) before returning to receive mode from
    transmit mode may be set at 10 msec intervals. The
    delay time may be adjusted while transmitting the
    signal.

    147 ANTI VOX GAIN

    Function: Sets the VOX anti-trip.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: The sensitivity of the anti-trip circuit may
    be adjusted so that the VOX circuit does not accidently engage due to the sounds from the transceiver
    speaker. Increase the anti-trip value to the point that
    sounds from the transceiver speaker do not engage
    the transmitter while using VOX operation.

    151 EMERGENCY FREQ TX

    Function: Enables TX/RX operation on the Alaska
    Emergency Channel, 5167.5kHz.
    Available Values: ENABLE/DISABLE
    Default Setting: DISABLE
    Description: When this Menu Item is set to ENABLE,
    the spot frequency of 5167.5 kHz will be enabled.
    The Alaska Emergency Channel will be fount between the PMS memory channel “P-9U” and the
    memory channel “01”.
    Important: The use of this frequency is restricted to
    stations operating in or near Alaska, and only for
    emergency purposes (never for routine operations).
    See §97.401(c) of the FCC regulations.

    148 DATA VOX GAIN

    Function: Sets the VOX GAIN while operating VOX
    during the sending/receiving of data (PSK31, RTTY,
    etc.).
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 50
    Description: Set the data input VOX gain to the point
    that the data signal reliably engages the transmitter,
    and also releases the transmit when there is no data
    signal.

    149 DATA VOX DELAY

    Function: Sets the VOX DELAY time while operating
    VOX during the sending/receiving of data (PSK31,
    RTTY, etc.).
    Available Values: 30msec - 3000msec
    Default Setting: 100msec

    150 ANTI DVOX GAIN

    Function: Sets the data VOX ant-trip.
    Available Values: 0 - 100
    Default Setting: 0
    Description: The sensitivity of the anti-trip circuit may
    be adjusted so that the VOX circuit does not accidently engage due to the received data while operating VOX. Increase the setting to a value that the
    VOX circuit does not engage due to the received
    data (the higher the value the greater the operation
    sensitivity).

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  • Page 141

    Installation of Optional Accessories
    FC-40 External Automatic Antenna Tuner (for Wire Antenna)
    The FC-40 makes use of the control circuitry built into the transceiver, which allows the operator to control and monitor
    automatic operation of the FC-40, which mounts near the antenna feedpoint. The FC-40 uses specially selected,
    thermally stable components, and is housed in a waterproof case to withstand severe environmental conditions with high
    reliability.
    A carefully-chosen combination of solid-state switching components and high-speed relays allows the FC-40 to match
    a wide variety of antennas to within a 2:1 SWR on any amateur band frequency (160 through 6 meters), typically in less
    than eight seconds. Transmitter power required for matching may be as little as 4 - 60 Watts, and matching settings are
    automatically stored in memory for instant recall when the same frequency range is selected later.
    Please see the FC-40 Operating Manual for detailed information.

    Interconnections to FT-991

    After mounting the FC-40, connect the cables from the
    FC-40 to the ANT and TUNER jacks on the rear panel
    of the FT-991 Transceiver.

    Antenna Terminal
    Antenna Cable (5 m)

    ANT

    GND

    Install the supplied ferrite
    core as close to the connector as possible.

    Control Cable (5 m)

    Wrap the ends of the waterproof
    cap with the supplied sealing
    tape to protect against moisture
    ingress.

    FT-991 Operating Manual

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  • Page 142

    Installation of Optional Accessories
    FC-40 External Automatic Antenna Tuner (for Wire Antenna)
    Setup the FT-991

    The optional FC-40 Automatic Antenna Tuner provides automatic tuning of a coaxial line to present nominal 50-ohm
    impedance to the FT-991’s ANT jack.
    Before operation can begin, the FT-991 microprocessor must be setup to accommodate the FC-40 automatic tuner. This
    is done using the Menu Mode:
    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the Menu Item “143
    TUNER SELECT”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to select “EXTERNAL”.

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    TUNE Button

    MULTI Knob

         / 6 : /# : 219'4

    

       670'4 5 ' . '%6

    + 0 6'40#.

       81: 5 ' . '%6

    /+ %

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

         / 6 : /# : 219'4

    

       670'4 5 ' . '%6

    ':6'40#.

       81: 5 ' . '%6

    /+ %

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    Note:
    r Be sure to connect a good earth ground to the GND
    terminal of the FC-40.
    r The carrier signal transmits continuously while
    tuning is in progress. Please monitor the operating
    frequency before beginning the tuning process. Be
    sure you are not interfering with others who may
    already be using the frequency.
    r It is normal to hear the sound of the relays while
    tuning is in progress.
    r If the impedance cannot be matched by the FC-40
    better than 2:1, and the “HI-SWR” icon blinks, the
    microprocessor will not retain the tuning data for that
    frequency, as the FC-40 presumes that you will want
    to adjust or repair your antenna system to correct the
    high SWR condition.

    Operation

    1. Press the TUNE button briefly to activate the
    Automatic Antenna Tuner.
    2. The “TUNER” icon will appear in the TFT display.
    3. Press and hold the TUNE button for one second
    to begin automatic tuning. The transmitter will be
    engaged, and the “TUNER” icon will blink while
    tuning is in progress.
    4. Tuning will stop automatically when a low SWR is
    achieved. You may Press the TUNE button while
    tuning is in progress, to cancel the automatic tuning.
    5. To disable the Automatic Antenna Tuner, press the
    TUNE button briefly again.

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    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 143

    Installation of Optional Accessories
    Active-Tuning Antenna System (ATAS-120A) Operation
    ATAS-120A is a multi-band auto-tuning antenna that can be used in the amateur bands from the HF band to the UHF
    band (7/14/21/28(29) /50/144/430)
    Using the active tuning mechanism, tuning can be carried out automatically by the control signal from FT-991. Please
    refer to the ATAS-120A Operating Manual for the assembly and installation of ATAS-120A.

    Interconnections to FT-991

    Connect “ATAS-120A” to the ANT terminal of FT-991 with a coaxial cable as shown in the diagram below.

    ATAS-120A

    Note:
     Do not plug or unplug the connector of the antenna
    cable with wet hands. Do not plug or unplug the
    connector during transmission as well. This may
    result in electric shock, injury, etc.
     The unit cannot be used with both the antenna tuner
    and ATAS-120A connected.

    When installing a dedicated VHF/UHF antenna simultaneously with the ATAS-120A, use a VHF/UHF
    antenna that does not include the HF - 50 MHz bands
    (144/430 MHz type).
    The reception circuit of the V/UHF band may be impacted by the transmitter energy from the ATAS-120A.
    In addition, install the 2 antennas as far away from each
    other as possible.

    Dedicated V/UHF band antenna

    Advice:
     Turn off the external power supply switch and the
    FT-991 power supply switch first before connecting
    the cables.
     Grounding is required for the ATAS-120A. Make
    sure the antenna base is in contact with the car body
    to ensure proper grounding.

    FT-991

    FT-991

    Commercial
    antenna
    duplexer

    ATAS-120A

    When using an antenna duplexer, the ANT terminal of
    the ATAS-120A and the HF/50 MHz ANT terminal
    of the FT-991 must be connected in series and also
    insulated from the grounding in order to supply the
    control voltage for the ATAS-120A.

    Commercial
    antenna base

    ATAS-120A connection example

    FT-991 Operating Manual

    Page 141



  • Page 144

    Installation of Optional Accessories
    Active-Tuning Antenna System (ATAS-120A) Operation
    Settings Before Operating the Tuner

    MENU(SETUP) Button

    TUNE Button

    1. Press the MENU(SETUP) button to enter the Menu
    mode.
    2. Rotate the MULTI knob to select the Menu item “143
    TUNER SELECT”.
    3. Touch [ SELECT ] on the LCD, then rotate the
    MULTI knob to set this Menu item to “ATAS”. The
    “ATAS” icon will appear in the display.
    MULTI Knob

         / 6 : /# : 219'4

    

       670'4 5 ' . '%6

    + 0 6'40#.

       81: 5 ' . '%6

    /+ %

    4. Touch [ENTER] on the LCD to save the new setting.

    Manual Tuning
         / 6 : /# : 219'4

    

       670'4 5 ' . '%6

    #6#5

       81: 5 ' . '%6

    /+ %

    5. Press the MENU(SETUP) button or touch [BACK]
    on the LCD to exit to normal operation.

    Tuning Operation

    Carry out the tuning of the ATAS-120A manually.
    Press the PTT switch on the microphone to transmit and
    then press the UP/DWN button on the microphone to
    adjust the antenna until the meter indicates the minimum
    SWR.
    The meter on the screen will automatically change to a
    SWR meter.

    The tuning of the ATAS-120A is carried out automatically.
    1. Press the TUNE button to begin automatic tuning.
    The transmitter will be engaged, and the “ATAS”
    icon will blink while tuning is in progress.
    Press the TUNE button to stop the tuning in the middle
    of the process.
    Note:
     Check the grounding and installation conditions if
    “HI-SWR” is flashing (tuning cannot be carried out).
     As transmit signals are emitted during tuning, take
    note not to interfere with any communication that is
    already in progress on the frequency.

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    FT-991 Operating Manual



  • Page 145

    Installation of Optional Accessories
    Mounting Bracket MMB-90 Installation
    MMB-90 is a mobile bracket used to mount the FT-991 series in an au